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Acta Agriculturae Slovenica

The Journal of University of Ljubljana

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Application of multivariate principal component analysis to morphological characterization of indigenous goats in Southern Nigeria

Moses Okpeku1, / Abdulmojeed Yakubu1 / Sunday Peters1, / Michael Ozoje1 / Christian Ikeobi1 / Olufunmilayo Adebambo1 / Ikhide Imumorin1

Dept. of Livestock Production Wilberforce Island, Niger Delta Univ., P.M.B. 071, Amassoma, Bayelsa State, Nigeria1

Dept. of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Univ. of Agriculture, Abeokuta, P.M.B. 2240, Abeokuta, Nigeria2

Dept. of Animal Science, Fac. of Agriculture, Nasarawa State Univ., Lafia Campus, P.M.B. 135, Lafia, Nigeria3

Dept. of Animal Science, Cornell Univ., 267 Morrison Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA4

This content is open access.

Citation Information: Acta agriculturae Slovenica. Volume 98, Issue 2, Pages 101–109, ISSN (Online) 1854-1941, ISSN (Print) 1581-9175, DOI: 10.2478/v10014-011-0026-4, January 2012

Publication History

Published Online:
2012-01-03

Application of multivariate principal component analysis to morphological characterization of indigenous goats in Southern Nigeria

Phenotypic variation present in a population arises due to genotypic and environmental effects, and the magnitude of phenotypic variability differs under different environmental conditions, therefore, the purpose of this study was to objectively describe the linear type traits of extensively managed mature indigenous goats of Southern Nigeria and to predict body weight from their orthogonal shape characters using principal component analysis. Body weight and four body measurements namely, height at withers, neck length, body length and heart girth were measured in 265 randomly selected West African Dwarf (WAD) and Red Sokoto (RS) goats of both sexes. RS goats had significantly (P < 0.05) higher morphological traits compared to their WAD counterparts. Sexual dimorphism was observed in all the traits with higher values recorded for males. Phenotypic correlations among body weight and biometric traits were positive and highly significant (r = 0.76-0.91 versus 0.82-0.97 and 0.66-0.94 versus 0.83-0.91 for WAD and RS female and male goats, respectively). In the varimax rotated principal component factor analysis, two factors were extracted for each sex of the two breeds, although with varying degrees of factor loadings. The principal component based regression models, which are preferable for selecting animals for optimal balance, accounted for 89.00 and 96.00% as well as 81.00 and 91.00% of the variation in body weight of female and male WAD and RS goats, respectively. The information obtained could be useful in designing appropriate management, selection and breeding programmes for utilization of goat genetic resources.

Uporaba multivariatne analize glavnih komponent pri morfološki karakterizaciji avtohtonih koz v južni Nigeriji

Fenotipska variabilnost v populaciji je pogojena z delovanjem genetskih in okoljskih dejavnikov. Ker je obseg fenotipske variabilnosti različen v različnih okoljih, smo skušali v tej študiji objektivno predstaviti linearne eksterierne lastnosti ekstenzivno vzrejanih avtohtonih koz v južni Nigeriji in z analizo glavnih komponent napovedati telesno maso na osnovi lastnosti, ki opredeljujejo njihovo telesno obliko. Izmerili smo telesno maso in štiri telesne mere (višina v vihru, dolžina vratu, dolžina trupa in obseg prsi) pri 265 naključno izbranih zahodno afriških pritlikavih kozah (West African Dwarf, WAD) in rdečih sokoto kozah (Red Sokoto, RS) obeh spolov. Vrednosti za merjene lastnosti so bile pri RS kozah statistično značilno (p < 0,05) večje kot pri WAD kozah. Spolni dimorfizem smo zabeležili pri vseh lastnostih, z večjimi vrednostmi za samce. Fenotipske korelacije med telesno maso in biometričnimi lastnostmi so bile pozitivne in statistično visoko značilne (r = 0,76-0,91 in 0,82-0.97 ter 0,66-0,94 in 0,83-0,91 za WAD in RS živali ženskega ter moškega spola). S faktorsko analizo z Varimax rotacijo smo za vsako od obeh pasem in vsak spol dobili po dva faktorja. Regresijski modeli, ki temeljijo na analizi glavnih komponent in so primerni za selekcijo živali, so pojasnili 89,00 in 96,00 %, ter 81,00 in 91,00 % variance telesne teže ženskih in moških živali pasem WAD in RS. Zbrane informacije bodo uporabne pri upravljanju, selekciji in načrtovanju rejskih programov za boljše izkoriščanje genskih virov pri kozah.

Keywords: goats; autochthonous breeds; body traits; multivariate analysis; Nigeria

Keywords: koze; avtohtone pasme; telesne mere; multivariantna analiza; Nigerija

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