Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation

Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology

The Journal of Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health

4 Issues per year

IMPACT FACTOR 2012: 0.674

Open Access
VolumeIssuePage

Open Access

Influence of Heredity and Environment on Peak Bone Density: A Review of Studies in Croatia

Selma Avdagić1 / Irena Barić1 / Irena Keser1 / Ivana Rumbak1 / Zvonimir Šatalić1

Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb, Croatia1

Laboratory for Food Chemistry and Nutrition, Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia2

This content is open access.
(CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

Citation Information: Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volume 63, Issue Supplement 1, Pages 11–16, ISSN (Print) 0004-1254, DOI: 10.2478/10004-1254-63-2012-2130, May 2012

Publication History:
Published Online:
2012-05-01

Influence of Heredity and Environment on Peak Bone Density: A Review of Studies in Croatia

One of the main determinants of who will develop osteoporosis is the amount of bone accumulated at peak bone density. There is poor agreement, however, on when peak bone density occurs. Ethnic differences were observed in age at peak bone density and their correlates. Since the diagnosis of osteoporosis and osteopaenia is based on the comparison between patients' bone mineral density (BMD) and optimal peak bone density in healthy young people (T-score), it is of great importance that each country should provide its own reference peak bone density data.

This review article presents our published results on peak bone density in Croatia and compares them with findings in other populations. Our research included 18 to 25-year-old students from Zagreb University and their parents. The results showed that peak bone mass in young Croatian women was achieved before the age of twenty, but BMD continued to increase after the mid-twenties in the long-bone cortical skeleton. BMD was comparable to the values reported by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and other studies that included the same age groups, except for the cortical part of the radius, where it was significantly lower. Men achieved peak bone density in the spine later than women, which cannot be explained by different diet or physical activity. As expected, heredity was more important for peak bone density than the environmental factors known to be important for bone health. However, the influence of heredity was not as strong as observed in most other populations. It was also weaker in the cortical than in the trabecular parts of the skeleton. Future research should include young adolescent population to define the exact age of achieving peak bone density in different skeletal sites.

Utjecaj nasljeđa i okoliša na vršnu koštanu gustoću: pregled istraživanja u Hrvatskoj

Vršna koštana gustoća je jedna od najvažnijih pretpostavki za nastanak osteoporoze. Poznati su rizični faktori za vršnu koštanu gustoću, ali vrijeme njezinog postizanja nije u potpunosti definirano. S obzirom na to da se dijagnoza osteoporoze i osteopenije temelji na usporedbi mineralne gustoće kosti (BMD) pojedinca s prosječnom vršnom koštanom gustoćom u mladoj, odrasloj populaciji (T vrijednost), vrlo je značajno da svaka zemlja utvrdi vrijednosti vršne koštane gustoće za svoju populaciju.

U ovom smo radu prikazali naša istraživanja i objavljene rezultate o vršnoj koštanoj gustoći u hrvatskoj populaciji i usporedili rezultate s drugim istraživanjima u svijetu. Naše je istraživanje obuhvatilo studentsku populaciju u dobi od 18 do 25 godina i njihove roditelje.

Rezultati su pokazali da se u našoj populaciji vršna koštana gustoća postiže prije 20. godine na trabekularnoj kosti, a na kortikalnom dijelu skeleta nakon 25. godine života. Vrijednosti vršne koštane gustoće u našoj populaciji slične su onima iz studije National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), kao i iz ostalih studija koje su obuhvatile istu dobnu skupinu, osim na kortikalnom dijelu skeleta, gdje su u našoj populaciji nađene značajno niže vrijednosti. Kasnije postizanje vršne koštane gustoće u muškaraca nego u žena bilo je najizraženije na kralježnici, što se nije moglo objasniti različitim prehrambenim navikama i razinom tjelesne aktivnosti među spolovima. Nasljeđe je imalo veći utjecaj na koštanu gustoću od okolišnih faktora, ali taj utjecaj nije bio toliko značajan kao u većini drugih istraživanja. Utjecaj nasljeđa na vršnu koštanu gustoću bio je manji na kortikalnom nego na trabekularnom dijelu skeleta.

Bilo bi važno proširiti istraživanje na mladu adolescentnu populaciju i tako točnije definirati vrijeme postizanja vršne koštane gustoće na pojedinim dijelovima skeleta.

Keywords: calcium intake; heredity; peak bone density; physical activity

Keywords: nasljeđe; unos kalcija; tjelesna aktivnost; vršna koštana gustoća

  • Matkovic V, Jelic T, Wardlaw GM, Ilich JZ, Goel PK, Wright JK, Andon MB, Smith KT, Heaney RP. Timing of peak bone mass in Caucasian females and its implication for the prevention of osteoporosis. J Clin Invest 1994;93:799-808.[CrossRef] [PubMed]

  • Lin YC, Lyle RM, Weaver CM, McCabe LD, McCabe GP, Johnston CC, Teegarden T. Peak spine and femoral neck bone mass in young women. Bone 2003; 32:546-53.[CrossRef] [PubMed]

  • Teegarden D, Proulx WR, Martin BR, Zhao J, McCabe GP, Lyle RM, Peacock M, Slemend C, Johnston CC, Weaver CM. Peak bone mass in young women. J Bone Miner Res 1995;10:711-5.[PubMed]

  • Bonjour JP, Theintz G, Buchs B, Slosman D, Rizzoli R. Critical years and stages of puberty for spinal and femoral bone mass accumulation during adolescence. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1991;73:555-63.[CrossRef]

  • Lu PW, Briody JN, Ogle GD, Morley K, Humphries IR, Allen J, Howman-Giles R, Sillence D, Cowell CT. Bone mineral density of total body, spine, and femoral neck in children and young adults: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study. J Bone Miner Res 1994;9:1451-8.

  • Gilsanz V, Gibbens DT, Carlson M, Boechat MI, Cann CE, Schulz EE. Peak trabecular vertebral density: a comparison of adolescent and adult females. Calcif Tissue Int 1988;43:260-2.[PubMed] [CrossRef]

  • Johnston CC, Slemenda CW. Determinants of peak bone mass. Osteoporos Int 1993;3(Suppl 1):54-5.[CrossRef]

  • Cooper GS, Umbach DM. Are vitamin D receptor polymorphisms associated with bone density? A meta-analysis. J Bone Miner Res 1996;11:1841-9.[PubMed]

  • Lambert HL, Eastell R, Karnik K, Russell JM, Barker ME. Calcium supplementation and bone mineral accretion in adolescent girls: an 18-mo randomized controlled trial with 2-y follow-up. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;87:455-62.

  • MacKelvie KJ, Khan KM, McKay HA. Is there a critical period for bone response to weight-bearing exercise in children and adolescents? A systematic review. Br J Sports Med 2002;36:250-7.[CrossRef]

  • Korkor AB, Eastwood D, Bretzmann C. Effects of gender, alcohol, smoking, and dairy consumption on bone mass in Wisconsin adolescents. WMJ 2009;108:181-8.

  • Lunt M, Felsenberg D, Adams J, Benevolenskaya L, Cannata J, Dequeker J, Dodenhof C, Falch JA, Johnell O, Khaw KT, Masaryk P, Pols H, Poor G, Reid D, Scheidt-Nave C, Weber K, Silman AJ, Reeve J. Population-based geographic variations in DXA bone density in Europe: the EVOS study. Osteoporos Int 1997;7:175-89.[CrossRef] [PubMed]

  • El-hajj Fuleihan G, Baddoura R, Awada H, Salam N, Salamoun M, Rizk P. Low peak bone mineral density in healthy Lebanese subjects. Bone 2002;31:520-8.

  • World Health Organization (WHO). Assessment of fracture risk and its association to screening for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Report of a WHO Study Group. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser 1994;843:1-129.

  • Cvijetić S, Colić Barić I, Keser I, Cecić I, Šatalić Z, Blanuša M. Peak bone density in Croatian women: variations at different skeletal sites. J Clin Densitom 2008;27:260-5.[Web of Science] [CrossRef]

  • Theintz G, Buchs B, Rizzoli R, Slosman D, Clavien H, Sizonenko PC, Bonjour JP. Longitudinal monitoring of bone mass accumulation in healthy adolescents: evidence for a marked reduction after 16 years of age at the levels of lumbar spine and femoral neck in female subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1992;75:1060-5.[PubMed]

  • Gallagher JC, Goldgar D, Moy A. Total bone calcium in normal women: effect of age and menopause status. J Bone Miner Res 1987;2:491-6.[PubMed]

  • Cvijetić S, Colić Barić I, Šatalić Z. Influence of heredity and environment on peak bone density: A parent-offspring study. J Clin Densitom 2010;13:301-6.[CrossRef] [PubMed] [Web of Science]

  • Krall EA, Dawson-Hughes B. Heritable and life-style determinants of bone-mineral density. J Bone Miner Res 1993;8:1-9.[PubMed]

  • Nordström P, Lorentzon R. Influence of heredity and environment on bone density in adolescent boys: A parent-offspring study. Osteoporos Int 1999;10:271-7.

  • Mitchell BD, Kammerer CM, Schneider JL, Perez R, Bauer RL. Genetic and environmental determinants of bone mineral density in Mexican Americans: results from the San Antonio Family Osteoporosis Study. Bone 2003;33:839-46.[CrossRef] [PubMed]

  • Jouanny P, Guillemin F, Kuntz C, Jeandel C, Pourel J. Environmental and genetic factors affecting bone mass. Similarity of bone density among members of healthy families. Arthritis Rheum 1995;38:61-7.[PubMed] [CrossRef]

  • Ferrari S, Rizzoli R, Slosman D, Bonjour JP. Familial resemblance for bone mineral mass is expressed before puberty. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83:358-61.[PubMed]

  • Ulrich CM, Georgiou CC, Snow-Harter CM, Gillis DE. Bone mineral density in mother-daughter pairs: relations to lifetime exercise, lifetime milk consumption, and calcium supplements. Am J Clin Nutr 1996;63:72-9.[PubMed]

  • McGuigan FEA, Murray L, Gallagher A, Davey-Smith G, Neville CE, Van't Hof R, Boreham C, Ralston SH. Genetic and Environmental Determinants of Peak Bone Mass in Young Men and Women. J Bone Miner Res 2002;17:1273-9.[CrossRef]

  • Cvijetić Avdagić S, Colić Barić I, Keser I, Cecić I, Šatalić Z, Bobić J, Gomzi M. Differences in peak bone density between male and female students. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol 2009;60:79-86.[Web of Science]

  • Kaštelan D, Kujundžić-Tiljak M, Kraljević I, Kardum I, Giljević Z, Koršić M. Calcaneus ultrasound in males: normative data in the Croatian population (ECUM study). J Endocrinol Invest 2006;29:221-5.[PubMed]

  • Kaštelan D, Grubić Z, Štingl K, Kraljević I, Dušek T, Džubur F, Giljević Z, Kerhin-Brkljačić V, Koršić M. The role of IGF-1 (CA) polymorphism on peak bone mass attainment in males. Medicina 2009;45:72-7.

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.