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Influence of Heredity and Environment on Peak Bone Density: A Review of Studies in Croatia
Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb, Croatia1
Laboratory for Food Chemistry and Nutrition, Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia2
This content is open access.
Citation Information: Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volume 63, Issue Supplement 1, Pages 11–16, ISSN (Print) 0004-1254, DOI: 10.2478/10004-1254-63-2012-2130, May 2012
- Published Online:
Influence of Heredity and Environment on Peak Bone Density: A Review of Studies in Croatia
One of the main determinants of who will develop osteoporosis is the amount of bone accumulated at peak bone density. There is poor agreement, however, on when peak bone density occurs. Ethnic differences were observed in age at peak bone density and their correlates. Since the diagnosis of osteoporosis and osteopaenia is based on the comparison between patients' bone mineral density (BMD) and optimal peak bone density in healthy young people (T-score), it is of great importance that each country should provide its own reference peak bone density data.
This review article presents our published results on peak bone density in Croatia and compares them with findings in other populations. Our research included 18 to 25-year-old students from Zagreb University and their parents. The results showed that peak bone mass in young Croatian women was achieved before the age of twenty, but BMD continued to increase after the mid-twenties in the long-bone cortical skeleton. BMD was comparable to the values reported by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and other studies that included the same age groups, except for the cortical part of the radius, where it was significantly lower. Men achieved peak bone density in the spine later than women, which cannot be explained by different diet or physical activity. As expected, heredity was more important for peak bone density than the environmental factors known to be important for bone health. However, the influence of heredity was not as strong as observed in most other populations. It was also weaker in the cortical than in the trabecular parts of the skeleton. Future research should include young adolescent population to define the exact age of achieving peak bone density in different skeletal sites.
Utjecaj nasljeđa i okoliša na vršnu koštanu gustoću: pregled istraživanja u Hrvatskoj
Vršna koštana gustoća je jedna od najvažnijih pretpostavki za nastanak osteoporoze. Poznati su rizični faktori za vršnu koštanu gustoću, ali vrijeme njezinog postizanja nije u potpunosti definirano. S obzirom na to da se dijagnoza osteoporoze i osteopenije temelji na usporedbi mineralne gustoće kosti (BMD) pojedinca s prosječnom vršnom koštanom gustoćom u mladoj, odrasloj populaciji (T vrijednost), vrlo je značajno da svaka zemlja utvrdi vrijednosti vršne koštane gustoće za svoju populaciju.
U ovom smo radu prikazali naša istraživanja i objavljene rezultate o vršnoj koštanoj gustoći u hrvatskoj populaciji i usporedili rezultate s drugim istraživanjima u svijetu. Naše je istraživanje obuhvatilo studentsku populaciju u dobi od 18 do 25 godina i njihove roditelje.
Rezultati su pokazali da se u našoj populaciji vršna koštana gustoća postiže prije 20. godine na trabekularnoj kosti, a na kortikalnom dijelu skeleta nakon 25. godine života. Vrijednosti vršne koštane gustoće u našoj populaciji slične su onima iz studije National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), kao i iz ostalih studija koje su obuhvatile istu dobnu skupinu, osim na kortikalnom dijelu skeleta, gdje su u našoj populaciji nađene značajno niže vrijednosti. Kasnije postizanje vršne koštane gustoće u muškaraca nego u žena bilo je najizraženije na kralježnici, što se nije moglo objasniti različitim prehrambenim navikama i razinom tjelesne aktivnosti među spolovima. Nasljeđe je imalo veći utjecaj na koštanu gustoću od okolišnih faktora, ali taj utjecaj nije bio toliko značajan kao u većini drugih istraživanja. Utjecaj nasljeđa na vršnu koštanu gustoću bio je manji na kortikalnom nego na trabekularnom dijelu skeleta.
Bilo bi važno proširiti istraživanje na mladu adolescentnu populaciju i tako točnije definirati vrijeme postizanja vršne koštane gustoće na pojedinim dijelovima skeleta.