1. World Health Organization (WHO). The World Health Report 2008 - primary Health Care (Now More Than Ever). Geneva: WHO; 2008 [displayed 25 November 2011]. Available at http://www.who.int/whr/2008/en/index.html
2. Murray CJ, Lopez AD. The Global Burden of Disease: A Comprehensive Assessment of Mortality and Disability from Diseases, Injuries and Risk Factors in 1990 and Projected to 2020. Vol I. Cambridge (MA): Harvard University Press; 1996.
3. Decramer M, Sibille Y. European Respiratory Roadmap. Recommendations for the future of respiratory medicine. Lausanne: ERS; 2011.
4. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (Updated December 2010): Medical Communication Recourses, Ink. 2010. [displayed 22 November 2011]. Available at http://www.goldcopd.com
5. Ameille J, Dalphin JC, Descatha A, Pairon JC. La bronchopneumopathie chronique obstructive professionnelle: une maladie meconnue [Occupational chronic obstructive pulmonary disease : a poorly understood disease, in French]. Rev Mal Respir 2006;23(4 Suppl):13S119-30.[CrossRef]
6. Eisner MD, Anthonisen N, Coultas D, Kuenzli N, Perez- Padilla R, Postma D, Romieu I, Silverman EK, Balmes JR; Environmental and Occupational Health Assembly Committee on Nonsmoking COPD. An offi cial American Thoracic Society public policy statement: Novel risk factors and the global burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2010;182:693-718.
7. Blanc PD, Toren K. Occupation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic bronchitis: an update. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2007;11:251-7.[PubMed]
9. Boschetto P, Quintavalle S, Miotto D, Lo Cascio N, Zeni E, Mapp CE. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and occupational exposures. J Occup Med Toxicol 2006;1:11.
10. Melville AM, Pless-Mulloli T, Afolabi OA, Stenton SC. COPD prevalence and its association with occupational exposures in a general population. Eur Respir J 2010;36:488-93.[Web of Science] [CrossRef]
11. Harber P, Tashkin DP, Simmons M, Crawford L, Hnizdo E, Connett J; Lung Health Study Group. Effect of occupational exposures on decline of lung function in early chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2007;176:994-1000.[Web of Science]
12. Fishwick D, Barber CM, Darby AC. Review series: Occupational and environmental lung disease: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the workplace. Chronic Respir Dis 2010;7:113-22.
13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Cigarette smoking among adults - United States, 1992, and changes in the defi nition of current cigarette smoking. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1994;43(19):342-6.
14. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management and Prevention of COPD, 2011. [displayed 22 November 2011]. Available at http://www.goldcopd.org/
15. Minette A. Questionnaire of the European Community for Coal and Steel (ECSC) on respiratory symptoms: 1987 - updating of the 1962 and 1967 questionnaires for studying chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Eur Respir J 1989;2:165-77.
16. Heatherton TF, Kozlowski LT, Frecker RC, Fagerstrom KO. The Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence: a revision of the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire. Br J Addict 1991;86:1119-27.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
17. Miller MR, Hankinson J, Brusasco V, Burgos F, Casaburi R, Coates A, Crapo R, Enright P, van der Grinten CP, Gustafsson P, Jensen R, Johnson DC, MacIntyre N, McKay R, Navajas D, Pedersen OF, Pellegrino R, Viegi G, Wanger J; ATS/ERS Task Force. Standardization of spirometry. Eur Resp J 2005;26:319-38.[CrossRef]
18. Quanjer PH, Tammeling GJ, Cotes JE, Pedersen OF, Peslin R, Yernault JC. Lung volumes and forced ventilatory fl ows. Report Working Party Standardization of Lung Function Tests, European Community for Steel and Coal. Offi cial Statement of the European Respiratory Society. Eur Respir J 1993;6(Suppl 16):S5-40.
19. R Development Core Team. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria [displayed 22 November 2011]. Available at http://www.R-project.org
20. Wood SN. Fast stable restricted maximum likelihood and marginal likelihood estimation of semiparametric generalized linear models. J Roy Stat Soc B Stat Meth 2011;73:3-36.
21. Wood SN. Stable and effi cient multiple smoothing parameter estimation for generalized additive models. J Am Stat Assoc 2004;99:673-86.[CrossRef]
22. Venables WN, Ripley BD. Modern Applied Statistics with S. Fourth Edition. New York (NY): Springer; 2002.
25. Rushton L. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and occupational exposure to silica. Rev Environ Health 2007;22:255-72.[PubMed]
26. Hnizdo E, Vallyathan V. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease due to occupational exposure to silica dust: a review of epidemiological and pathological evidence. Occup Environ Med 2003;60:237-43.[CrossRef]
27. Balmes J, Becklake M, Blanc P, Henneberger P, Kreiss K, Mapp C, Milton D, Schwartz D, Toren K, Viegi G; Environmental and Occupational Health Assembly, American Thoracic Society. American Thoracic Society Statement: Occupational contribution to the burden of airway disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003;167:787-97.
28. Becklake MR. Occupational exposures: evidence for a causal association with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am Rev Respir Dis 1989;140(3 Pt 2):S85-91.
29. de Meer G, Kerkhof M, Kromhout H, Schouten JP, Heederik D. Interaction of atopy and smoking on respiratory effects of occupational dust exposure: a general population-based study. Environ Health 2004;3:6.[PubMed]
30. Blanc PD, Eisner MD, Earnest G, Trupin L, Balmes JR, Yelin EH, Gregorich SE, Katz PP. Further exploration of the links between occupational exposure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Occup Environ Med 2009;51:804-10.[PubMed] [CrossRef] [Web of Science]
Volume 64 (2013)
Volume 63 (2012)
Volume 62 (2011)
Volume 61 (2010)
Volume 60 (2009)
Volume 59 (2008)
Most Downloaded Articles
- A Systematic Review of Aluminium Phosphide Poisoning by Mehrpour, Omid/ Jafarzadeh, Mostafa and Abdollahi, Mohammad
- Successful treatment of cardiogenic shock with an intra-aortic balloon pump following aluminium phosphide poisoning by Mehrpour, Omid / Amouzeshi, Ahmad / Dadpour, Bita / Oghabian, Zohreh / Zamani, Nasim / Amini, Shahram and Hoffman, Robert S.
- Proteomics of heavy metal toxicity in plants by Cvjetko, Petra/ Zovko, Mira and Balen, Biljana
- Suicide by Fentanyl by Sutlović, Davorka and Definis-Gojanović, Marija
- Liver Aspartate Transaminase Isoenzymes as Biomarkers of Chronic Exposure to Chromium(VI) by Najafi, Mohammad/ Roustazadeh, Abazar/ Moshtaghie, Ali Asghar and Ani, Mohsen
Copd and occupation: a retrospective cohort study of industrial workers
1Department of Hygiene and Occupational Medicine, Kazan State Medical University, Kazan, Russian Federation
2Department of Environmental Systems Modelling, Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russian Federation
3Department of Hygiene and Occupational Medicine, Kazan State Medical University, Kazan, Russian Federation
4Department of Hygiene and Occupational Medicine, Kazan State Medical University, Kazan, Russian Federation
Citation Information: Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Volume 63, Issue 3, Pages 345–356, ISSN (Print) 0004-1254, DOI: 10.2478/10004-1254-63-2012-2178, September 2012
- Published Online:
The aim of this paper was to ascertain chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) prevalence among industrial workers in the Russian Federation and determine relative contribution of smoking and occupational factors to COPD. We recruited 1,375 workers aged 30 or over. Six hundred and twenty-four of them were occupationally exposed to vapours, gases, dust, and fumes (VGDF). Physical examination and baseline spirometry were performed for all the participants of the study. Those with airfl ow limitation of FEV1/FVC<0.70 were considered having COPD and those with presence of cough and sputum production for at least three months in each of two consecutive years were considered having chronic bronchitis (CB), with no overlapping between these 2 groups. Data on occupational history and VGDF levels in the working area were collected from all participants. In total, 105 cases of COPD and 170 cases of CB were diagnosed in the cohort of examined workers. Occupational exposure to VGDF was twice as often present among COPD patients than among both patients with CB and the control group of healthy workers (p<0.05). More than 40 % of COPD patients were occupationally exposed to VGDF above the value of 3.0 of the occupational exposure limit (OEL) and more than 20 % to 6.0 OEL and higher. Overall odds ratio for COPD development due to occupational VGDF exposure was 5.9 (95 % CI=3.6 to 9.8, p=0.0001). Both smoking and VGDF seem to be important for the development of COPD. Analysis of the combined effect of tobacco smoking and occupational noxious particles and gases on COPD development has shown the following order of risk factors based on the strength of their infl uence: VGDF levels, smoking index, age, and heating microclimate. There is a statistically signifi cant level of relationship and “dose-effect” dependence between occupational exposures to VGDF and the development of COPD. The effect of VGDF composition on the probability of COPD development was not found in the study. Results of this study were used to substantiate the inclusion of COPD into the National List of Occupational Diseases of the Russian Federation.