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Biological Chemistry

Editor-in-Chief: Brüne, Bernhard

Editorial Board Member: Buchner, Johannes / Ludwig, Stephan / Sies, Helmut / Turk, Boris / Wittinghofer, Alfred

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The composition, structural properties and binding of very-low-density and low-density lipoproteins to the LDL receptor in normo- and hypertriglyceridemia: relation to the apolipoprotein E phenotype

Alexander D. Dergunov1 / Alexey V. Novoselov2 / Sophie Visvikis3 / Gerard Siest4 / Vladimir V. Yakushkin5 / Vladimir Tsibulsky6

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Corresponding author

Citation Information: Biological Chemistry. Volume 386, Issue 5, Pages 441–452, ISSN (Online) 1437-4315, ISSN (Print) 1431-6730, DOI: 10.1515/BC.2005.053, July 2005

Publication History

Received:
July 26, 2004
Accepted:
March 8, 2005
Published Online:
2005-07-05

Abstract

The composition, apolipoprotein structure and lipoprotein binding to the LDL receptor were studied for very-low-density (VLDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles isolated from subjects with apoE phenotype E3/3 (E3), E2/2 or E2/3 (E2+) and E3/4 or E4/4 (E4+) and a wide range of plasma triglyceride (TG) contents. The data combined for all three phenotype groups can be summarized as follows. (i) A decrease in accessibility of VLDL tryptophan residues to I- anions with a decrease in tryptophan surface density, concomitant with an increase in VLDL dimensions, reflects the increased efficiency of protein-protein interactions. (ii) A gradual increase in the quenching constant for LDL apoB fluorescence with an increase in TG/cholesterol (Chol) ratio reflects the ‘freezing’ effect of Chol molecules on apoB dynamics. (iii) Different mechanisms specific for a particular lipoprotein from E3/3 or E2/3 subjects are responsible for apoE-mediated VLDL binding and apoB-mediated LDL binding to the LDL receptor in a solid-phase binding assay. (iv) The ‘spacing’ effect of apoC-III molecules on apoE-mediated VLDL binding results in a decrease in the number of binding sites. (v) The maximum of the dependence of the LDL binding affinity constant on relative tryptophan density corresponds to LDL intermediate size. VLDL particles from hypertriglyceridemic E2/3 heterozygotic individuals had remnant-like properties (increased cholesterol, apoE and decreased apoC-III content) while their binding efficiency was unchanged. Based on the affinity constant value and LDL-Chol content, increased competition between VLDL and LDL for the binding to the LDL receptor upon increase in plasma TG is suggested, and LDL from hypertriglyceridemic E3/3 homozygotic individuals is the most efficient competitor.

Keywords: apolipoprotein C-III; apolipoprotein E; low-density lipoprotein (LDL); low-density lipoprotein receptor; very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)

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