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Biological Chemistry

Editor-in-Chief: Brüne, Bernhard

Editorial Board Member: Buchner, Johannes / Ludwig, Stephan / Sies, Helmut / Turk, Boris / Wittinghofer, Alfred

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The epigenetic bottleneck of neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases

Farahnaz Sananbenesi1 / Andre Fischer1

1Laboratory for Aging and Cognitive Diseases, European Neuroscience Institute, Grisebach Str. 5, D-37077 Göttingen, Germany

Corresponding author

Citation Information: Biological Chemistry. Volume 390, Issue 11, Pages 1145–1153, ISSN (Online) 1437-4315, ISSN (Print) 1431-6730, DOI: 10.1515/BC.2009.131, September 2009

Publication History

Received:
2009-05-15
Accepted:
2009-08-07
Published Online:
2009-09-13

Abstract

The orchestrated expression of genes is essential for the development and survival of every organism. In addition to the role of transcription factors, the availability of genes for transcription is controlled by a series of proteins that regulate epigenetic chromatin remodeling. The two most studied epigenetic phenomena are DNA methylation and histone-tail modifications. Although a large body of literature implicates the deregulation of histone acetylation and DNA methylation with the pathogenesis of cancer, recently epigenetic mechanisms have also gained much attention in the neuroscientific community. In fact, a new field of research is rapidly emerging and there is now accumulating evidence that the molecular machinery that regulates histone acetylation and DNA methylation is intimately involved in synaptic plasticity and is essential for learning and memory. Importantly, dysfunction of epigenetic gene expression in the brain might be involved in neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. In particular, it was found that inhibition of histone deacetylases attenuates synaptic and neuronal loss in animal models for various neurodegenerative diseases and improves cognitive function. In this article, we will summarize recent data in the novel field of neuroepigenetics and discuss the question why epigenetic strategies are suitable therapeutic approaches for the treatment of brain diseases.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease; epigenetics; HDAC inhibitors; histone acetylation; learning and memory; neurodegenerative diseases

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