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The B.E. Journal of Macroeconomics

Editor-in-Chief: Abraham, Arpad / Cavalcanti, Tiago

Ed. by Carceles-Poveda , Eva / Kambourov, Gueorgui / Lambertini, Luisa / Ruhl, Kim

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Technology Adoption in Follower Countries: With or Without Local R&D Activities?

Yasuyuki Todo1

1Tokyo Metropolitan University,

Citation Information: Topics in Macroeconomics. Volume 5, Issue 1, ISSN (Online) 1534-5998, DOI: 10.2202/1534-5998.1249, February 2005

Publication History

Published Online:
2005-02-01

Technology adoption in follower countries can be accomplished by local R&D activities, but it can also be achieved without formal R&D, for example, by foreign direct investment. Empirical evidence suggests that current R&D activities often expand local knowledge for future R&D, while adoption without R&D does not seem to have this effect. We formalize this idea in a quality-ladder growth model and find that this biased externality results in multiple steady states: In the long run, countries with sufficient initial knowledge and human capital converge to a state in which R&D is locally undertaken and thus become relatively rich, while other countries fully rely on technology adoption without R&D and stay poor. Switching regression using cross-country data supports the presence of multiple steady states in R&D expenditures.

Keywords: technology adoption; local R&D activities; multinational enterprises; multiple steady states; switching regression

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