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Most Downloaded Articles
- Comparing Wealth Effects: The Stock Market versus the Housing Market by Case, Karl E./ Quigley, John M. and Shiller, Robert J.
- Who Gets the Credit? And Does It Matter? Household vs. Firm Lending Across Countries by Beck, Thorsten/ Büyükkarabacak, Berrak/ Rioja, Felix K. and Valev, Neven T.
- Monetary and Macroprudential Policy Rules in a Model with House Price Booms by Kannan, Prakash/ Rabanal, Pau and Scott, Alasdair M.
- Is Discretionary Fiscal Policy in Japan Effective? by Rafiq, Sohrab
- In search of lost time: the neoclassical synthesis by De Vroey, Michel and Duarte, Pedro Garcia
Price-Level Determinacy, Lower Bounds on the Nominal Interest Rate, and Liquidity Traps
1Norges Bank, firstname.lastname@example.org
2Federal Reserve Board, email@example.com
Citation Information: Contributions in Macroeconomics. Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages –, ISSN (Online) 1534-6005, DOI: 10.2202/1534-6005.1437, November 2006
- Published Online:
We study standard monetary-policy rules with inflation-rate targets and either interest-rate or money-supply instruments using a flexible-price, perfect-foresight model. We focus mainly on interest-rate rules, but the results for money-supply rules are analogous. A locally-unique target equilibrium always exists. There are also below-target equilibria (BTE) with inflation below target and constant or asymptotically approaching or eventually reaching a below-target value. Liquidity traps are neither necessary nor sufficient for BTE. Such equilibria can also arise if monetary policy keeps the interest rate above a lower bound. We construct monetary-policy rules that preclude BTE. All are non-monotonic and discontinuous in current inflation. Each implies a difference equation in inflation. Some of these difference equations are continuous, but others are not. They are all non-monotonic and non-differentiable at a point. We argue that Japan's difficulties in the 1990s were probably the result of a stabilization problem rather than an indeterminacy problem.