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Chemical composition of the Tatra Mountain lakes: Recovery from acidification

1Hydrobiological Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, and Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of South Bohemia, Na Sádkách 7, CZ-37005, České Budějovice, Czech Republic

2Hydrobiological Station, Institute for Environmental Studies, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, P.O. Box 47, CZ-38801, Blatná, Czech Republic

© 2006 Institute of Zoology, Slovak Academy of Sciences. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0)

Citation Information: Biologia. Volume 61, Issue 18, Pages S21–S33, ISSN (Online) 1336-9563, ISSN (Print) 0006-3088, DOI: 10.2478/s11756-006-0117-6, September 2006

Publication History

Published Online:


Ninety-one lakes distributed along the Tatra Mountains (most of lakes > 1 ha and 65% of lakes > 0.01 ha) were sampled and analysed for ionic and nutrient composition in September 2004 (15 years after reduction in acid deposition). Eighty-one lakes were in alpine zone and ten lakes in Norway spruce forest. The results were compared to similar lake surveys from 1994 (the beginning of water recovery from acidification) and 1984 (maximum acidification). Atmospheric deposition of SO42− and inorganic N decreased 57% and 35%, respectively, in this region from the late 1980s to 2000. Lake water concentrations of SO42− and NO3− have decreased both by ∼50% on average (to 23 and 19 μmol L−1, respectively, in 2004) since 1984. While the decrease in SO42− concentrations was stable throughout 1984–2004, most of the NO3− decrease occurred from 1994 to 2004. The declines in SO42− and NO3− concentrations depended on catchment coverage with vegetation, being most rapid for SO42− in forest lakes and for NO3− in rocky lakes. Concentrations of the sum of base cations (dominated by Ca2+) significantly decreased between 1984 and 2004, with the highest change in rocky lakes. Most of this decline occurred between 1994 and 2004. Acid neutralising capacity (ANC) did not change in the 1984–1994 period, but increased on average by 29 μmol L−1 between 1994 and 2004, with the highest change in rocky lakes. Over the last decade, the proportion of lakes with ANC > 150 μmol L−1 increased from 15% to 21% and that of ANC < 20 μmol L−1 decreased from 37% to 20%. The highest decline in H+ and Al concentrations occurred in the most acid lakes. On a regional basis, no significant change was observed for total phosphorus, total organic nitrogen, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the 1994–2004 period. However, these parameters increased in forest lakes, which exhibited an increasing trend in DOC concentrations, inversely related (P < 0.001) to their decreasing ionic strength (30% on average in 1994–2004).

Keywords: Water chemistry; recovery from acidification; long-term trends; nutrients; chlorophyll; Slovakia; Poland

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