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Contrast adaptation to time constraints on development of two pre-dispersal predators of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) seed

1Research Institute of Crop Production

© 2008 Versita Warsaw. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0)

Citation Information: Biologia. Volume 63, Issue 3, Pages 418–426, ISSN (Online) 1336-9563, ISSN (Print) 0006-3088, DOI: 10.2478/s11756-008-0055-6, May 2008

Publication History

Published Online:
2008-05-05

Abstract

Pre-dispersal seed predators of quickly maturing inflorescences of Asteraceae are constrained by shortage of development time. At seed dispersal, they should pupate or, if still immature, relocate into another inflorescence. To investigate how dominant coleopteran predators of dandelion seed, Glocianus punctiger (Curculionidae) and Olibrus bicolor (Phalacridae), cope with time limitation we combined observation (development and temperature of dandelion capitulum, thermal constants of predator development, age structure of larval populations at seed dispersal) and analogy (“rate isomorphy” in predator development, comparing “model” coleopteran species with similar temperature requirements). Development of a dandelion capitulum takes 21 days. The time available to G. punctiger (140–190 day degrees, development threshold 6.3°C) is sufficient to complete development and pupate after seed dispersal. By contrast, only 30–50 day degrees are available to O. bicolor (threshold 13.5°C) and this is not enough to complete development and consequently immature larvae should move to other capitula to continue feeding until pupation. These contrast strategies which are determined by this thermal adaptation, are accompanied by differences in larval morphology. The “cold adapted” G. punctiger has an apodous larva not capable of migrating between capitula while the “warm adapted” O. bicolor has a mobile campodeiform larva capable of migration.

Keywords: Curculionidae; Phalacridae; Coleoptera; lower development threshold; temperature; larva; morphology

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