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Relationships between environmental variables and vegetation across mountain wetland sites, N. Iran

1Department of Biology, Faculty of Basic Science, Shahed University, P.O. Box: 18155-159, Tehran, Iran

2Department of Botany, School of Biology, University College of Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3Department of Botany, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Tehran, Iran

4Department of Biology, Faculty of Basic Science, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Mazandaran, Iran

5Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, Alfred Denny Building, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield, S10 2TN, UK

© 2011 Slovak Academy of Sciences. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0)

Citation Information: Biologia. Volume 66, Issue 1, Pages 76–87, ISSN (Online) 1336-9563, ISSN (Print) 0006-3088, DOI: 10.2478/s11756-010-0127-2, December 2010

Publication History

Published Online:


The mountain wetlands studied represent a unique habitat on the southern slopes of the Alborz mountain range, the second largest range in Iran. In comparison with other parts of this range the western section is ecologically and botanically unknown. Floristic and vegetation variation were assessed using diverse environmental variables along a broad altitudinal span (350 m to 3200 m a.s.l.). Using both statistical and ordination analyses floristic variation was assessed on three defined altitudinal belts which were delimited based on Alborz macro-climatic boundaries. The distribution of individual wetland plant species, of phytogeographic elements and of life-forms all differ among altitudinal belts. This result is also shown in both direct and indirect analyses of ordinations. The proportion of geophytes significantly increases with altitude and geophytes are very well represented in the upper altitudinal belt. The number of species of a narrow phytogeographical distribution (e.g. endemics) increases with altitude, soil pH and EC declined with altitude. The first axis of DCA ordination with passively projected environmental variables indicates that, organic matter and concentration of Fe2+ are increased toward higher altitude. The second axis of ordination is related to both soil texture and slope inclination. The distribution of species in the CCA species plot is also close to the distribution of those in the DCA ordination. This study indicates that altitude and slope together with other dependent environmental variables (pH, EC, Ca2+ and soil texture) are the main ecological factors controlling species distribution across the Western Alborz wetland sites.

Keywords: altitudinal gradient; dry mountain wetlands; life form; vegetation ordination; Western Alborz mountain range; Iran

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