Effects of electric and magnetic loadings on bone surface remodeling: a model modification and simulation : Biomedizinische Technik/Biomedical Engineering

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Biomedical Engineering / Biomedizinische Technik

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Volume 57 (2012)

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Effects of electric and magnetic loadings on bone surface remodeling: a model modification and simulation

Anahita Fathi Kazerooni1, 2 / 3, 4 / Mohammadreza Yazdchi5 / Saeid Kasiri6 / Hamidreza Saligheh Rad1, 2

1Department of Biomedical Systems and Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2Research Center for Science and Technology in Medicine (RCSTIM), Emam Hospital, Tehran, Iran

3Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran, Iran

4Nanomedicine and Tissue Engineering Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

5Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

6Trinity Center for Bioengineering, University of Dublin, College Green, Dublin 2, Ireland

Corresponding author: Mohsen Rabbani, 38 Emamidust Alley, Ahmadabad Square, Isfahan, Iran Phone: +98-913-3158073 Fax: +98-311-2736966

Citation Information: Biomedizinische Technik/Biomedical Engineering. Volume 56, Issue 3, Pages 167–173, ISSN (Online) 1862-278X, ISSN (Print) 0013-5585, DOI: 10.1515/bmt.2011.016, June 2011

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This paper presents a new modification to the previous model of bone surface remodeling under electric and magnetic loadings. For this study, the thermo-electro-magneto-elastic model of bone surface remodeling is used. This model is modified by considering an important phenomenon occurring in living bone through its adaptation to external loadings called desensitization. In fact, bone cells lose their responsiveness and sensitivity to long-term external loadings, i.e., they become desensitized. Therefore, bone cells need a recovery period, during which they become resensitized. In this work, this phenomenon is considered in the original model. The effects of various electric and magnetic loading conditions, including various frequencies, waveforms and pulse duty cycles, are explored on the modified model and compared to the original model. The modified model is also searched for the optimal frequency and duty cycle, to obtain the best bone growth response under electromagnetic fields. The results of this paper show that the modified model is consistent with experimental observations. In addition, it is indicated that this modified model in contrast to the original model, is sensitive to frequency. It is shown that the optimal frequency of loading for the modified model is 1 Hertz (Hz), and the pulse duty cycles up to 50% are sufficient for bone remodeling to reach its maximum value.

Keywords: bone desensitization; bone healing; bone surface remodeling; electric loading; magnetic loading

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