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Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM)

Published in Association with the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM)

Editor-in-Chief: Plebani, Mario

Editorial Board Member: Gillery, Philippe / Kazmierczak, Steven / Lackner, Karl J. / Lippi, Giuseppe / Melichar, Bohuslav / Schlattmann, Peter / Whitfield, John B.

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CD 14++ Monocytes, CD14+/CD16+ Subset and Soluble CD14 as Biological Markers of Inflammatory Systemic Diseases and Monitoring Immuno-suppressive Therapy

Juergen E. Scherberich / Wolfgang A. Nockher

Citation Information: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. Volume 37, Issue 3, Pages 209–213, ISSN (Print) 1434-6621, DOI: 10.1515/CCLM.1999.039, June 2005

Publication History

Published Online:
2005-06-01

Abstract

The majority of peripheral blood monocytes strongly positive for the lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-receptor CD14 are negative for Fcγ receptor type III (CD16). However, a subset of monocytes coexpressing CD14 and CD16 accounts for about 8% of all monocytes. This population exhibits features of tissue macrophages, and is largely expanded (> 20 %) during acute and chronic inflammatory diseases including cases with pararheumatic systemic vasculitis. In addition, compared to normal controls, soluble CD14 (sCD14) is elevated (> 3 μg/ml) in serum specimens of these patients. CD14+/CD16+ monocytes show a higher phagocytosis rate than CD14+/CD16 negative cells, and express higher levels of interleukin-1 and major histocompatibility complex, such as histocompatibility antigens HLA-DR, -DP and -DQ antigens. Glucocorticoids downregulate expression of CD14 and rapidly deplete CD14+/CD16+ monocytes from peripheral blood. Patients under chronic immunosuppressive therapy exhibit low CD14/+/CD16+ rates, which may rise during infectious and non-infectious inflammatory complications, however. Thus, serial analyses for sCD14 and the proinflammatory CD14+/CD16+ subset of monocytes suggest a valuable tool monitoring patients under immunosuppressive and/or antiinflammatory therapy.

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