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Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM)

Published in Association with the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM)

Editor-in-Chief: Plebani, Mario

Ed. by Gillery, Philippe / Lackner, Karl J. / Lippi, Giuseppe / Melichar, Bohuslav / Payne, Deborah A. / Schlattmann, Peter / Tate, Jillian R.

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Comparison between creatinine and pregnanediol adjustments in the retrospective analysis of urinary hormone profiles during the human menstrual cycle

Fernando Miro1 / John Coley2 / Mohamed M. Gani3 / Paul W. Perry4 / Duncan Talbot5 / Laurence J. Aspinall6







Corresponding author: F. Miro, Unipath Limited, Stannard Way, Priory Business Park, Bedford, MK44 3UP, UK. Phone: +44(0) 1234 835454, Fax: +44(0) 1234 835002, E-mail:

Citation Information: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. Volume 42, Issue 9, Pages 1043–1050, ISSN (Print) 1434-6621, DOI: 10.1515/CCLM.2004.210, June 2005

Publication History

February 27, 2004
July 23, 2004
Published Online:


Measurement of reproductive hormones in urine is a practical way of obtaining large amounts of information; however, there is still controversy on how to overcome problems derived from volume fluctuations between samples. Creatinine adjustment is a widely accepted solution, however, it introduces an extra cost, and large studies involving multiple sequential determinations would benefit from more economical solutions.

We determined the value of creatinine adjustment, and compared it with a mathematical method that uses the smoothed profile of pregnanediol (PdG) as a reference to adjust other hormonal markers. To do this, we investigated the effects on three major urinary reproductive hormonal markers (luteinizing hormone (LH), estrone 3-glucuronide (E1G) and PdG) in 17 complete menstrual cycles. Detection of the day of LH peak did not differ between raw and adjusted data. Creatinine adjustment reduced variation in pre-ovulatory E1G levels between individuals, though the effect was negligible within individuals. No significant differences were found regarding post-ovulatory PdG rise. Although creatinine adjustment significantly reduces variability, producing smoother profiles, an equivalent degree of smoothness is obtained using the PdG adjustment.

We conclude that under the current technology, for the retrospective study of urinary hormonal profiles in the human menstrual cycle, PdG adjustment is a valid alternative to creatinine.

Keywords: creatinine; luteinizing hormone; menstrual cycle; pregnanediol; steroids

Citing Articles

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Sarah Johnson, Sarah Weddell, Sonya Godbert, Guenter Freundl, Judith Roos, and Christian Gnoth
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM), 2015, Volume 53, Number 7
Judith Roos, Sarah Johnson, Sarah Weddell, Erhard Godehardt, Julia Schiffner, Günter Freundl, and Christian Gnoth
The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care, 2015, Page 1
Vincenzo De Leo, Valeria Scolaro, Maria Concetta Musacchio, Alessandra Di Sabatino, Giuseppe Morgante, and Antonio Cianci
Fertility and Sterility, 2011, Volume 96, Number 4, Page 917
Sarah R. Johnson, Fernando Miro, Sophie Barrett, and Jayne E. Ellis
Current Medical Research and Opinion, 2009, Volume 25, Number 3, Page 741
Fernando Miro, Susan W Parker, Laurence J Aspinall, John Coley, Paul W Perry, and Jayne E Ellis
Menopause, 2005, Volume 12, Number 3, Page 281

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