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Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM)

Published in Association with the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM)

Editor-in-Chief: Plebani, Mario

Ed. by Gillery, Philippe / Lackner, Karl J. / Lippi, Giuseppe / Melichar, Bohuslav / Schlattmann, Peter / Tate, Jillian R. / Tsongalis, Gregory J.

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Recommendation for measuring and reporting chloride by ISEs in undiluted serum, plasma or blood: International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC): IFCC Scientific Division, Committee on Point of Care Testing and Working Group on Selective Electrodes

Mohammed C. Ben Rayana1 / Robert W. Burnett2 / Arthur K. Covington3 / Paul D'Orazio4 / Niels Fogh-Andersen5 / Ellis Jacobs6 / Ritu Kataky7 / Wolf R. Külpmann8 / Katsuhiko Kuwa9 / Lasse Larsson10 / Andrzej Lewenstam11 / Anton H.J. Maas12 / Gerhard Mager13 / Jerzy W. Naskalski14 / Anthony O. Okorodudu15 / Christoph Ritter16 / Andrew St John17


















Corresponding author: Prof. Dr. W.R. Külpmann, Klinische Chemie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Carl-Neuberg-Str, 1, 30625 Hannover, Germany Phone: +49-5115326613, Fax: +49-5115328614,

Citation Information: Clinical Chemical Laboratory Medicine. Volume 44, Issue 3, Pages 346–352, ISSN (Online) 1437-4331, ISSN (Print) 1434-6621, DOI: 10.1515/CCLM.2006.060, March 2006


The proposed recommendation for measuring and reporting chloride in undiluted plasma or blood by ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) will provide results that are identical to chloride concentrations measured by coulometry for standardized normal plasma or blood samples. It is applicable to all current ISEs dedicated to chloride measurement in undiluted samples that meet the requirements. However, in samples with reduced water concentration, results by coulometry are lower than by ion-selective electrode due to volume displacement. The quantity measured by this standardized ISE procedure is called the ionized chloride concentration. It may be clinically more relevant than the chloride concentration as determined by coulometry, photometry or by ISE after dilution of the sample.

Keywords: blood; chloride (ionized and total); coulometry; ion-selective electrode; plasma; standardization

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