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Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM)

Published in Association with the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM)

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Inter- and intra-individual variations of urinary endogenous metabolites in healthy male college students using 1H NMR spectroscopy

Eun Mi Park1 / Eunil Lee2 / Hyun Jin Joo3 / Eunha Oh4 / Joohyun Lee5 / Ji-Sung Lee6

1Department of Public Health and Division of Brain Korea 21 Project for Biomedical Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, Korea and Department of Public Health Administration, Shin Heung College, Gyeonggi-do, Korea

2Department of Public Health and Division of Brain Korea 21 Project for Biomedical Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, Korea and Department of Preventive Medicine and Medical Research Center for Environmental Toxico-Genomics and Proteomics, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

3Center for Food and Drug Inspection, Gyeongin Regional Food and Drug Administration, Incheon, Korea

4Department of Preventive Medicine and Medical Research Center for Environmental Toxico-Genomics and Proteomics, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

5Department of Public Health and Division of Brain Korea 21 Project for Biomedical Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, Korea and Department of Preventive Medicine and Medical Research Center for Environmental Toxico-Genomics and Proteomics, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

6Division of Biostatistics, Graduate School of Public Health, Korea University, Seoul, Korea

Corresponding authors: Eunil Lee, MD, PhD, Department of Preventive Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, 126-1, Anam-dong 5-ga, Seoungbuk-gu, Seoul 136-705, Korea Phone: +82-2-920-6170, Fax: +82-2-927-7220, HyunJin Joo, PhD, Center for Food and Drug Inspection, Gyeongin Regional Food and Drug Administration, 120, Juan-dong, Nam-gu, Incheon, Seoul 402-835, Korea Phone: +82-2-450-3367, Fax: +82-2-442-4622,

Citation Information: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. Volume 47, Issue 2, Pages 188–194, ISSN (Online) 1437-4331, ISSN (Print) 1434-6621, DOI: 10.1515/CCLM.2009.040, February 2009

Publication History

Received:
2008-08-05
Accepted:
2008-10-24

Abstract

Background: Most human metabolomics studies have shown that spectral outputs of 1H nuclear magnetic resonance fingerprinting are strongly influenced by inter- and intra-individual variations; however, few studies have been performed to evaluate the inter- and intra-individual variations in urinary endogenous metabolites.

Methods: We recruited 30 male college students to evaluate the factors affecting intra- and inter-individual variations in urinary endogenous metabolites. Statistical analysis for variations in urinary metabolites was performed after eliminating outliers found in principal component analysis (PCA) plots.

Results: Inter-individual variations were relatively low for 2-oxoglutarate, succinate, citrate, dimethylglycine, and taurine, but high for trimethylaminoxide (TMAO), hippurate, and lactate. Intra-individual variations for 2-oxoglutarate, citrate, dimethylglycine, and taurine were relatively low, but high for TMAO and hippurate. The factors affecting inter-individual variation of lactate were age, body mass index, beverages, and alcohol, whereas the factors affecting intra-individual variation of lactate were age and fish. Kim Chi intake affected the inter-individual variation of succinate, citrate, TMAO, and hippurate; however, it did not affect the intra-individual variation of endogenous metabolites.

Conclusions: Our results showed that inter- and intra-individual variations in urinary endogenous metabolites were very large, and significant factors affecting inter- and intra-individual variation were diverse, even after eliminating outliers in PCA analysis.

Clin Chem Lab Med 2009;47:188–94.

Keywords: genetic variation; magnetic resonance spectroscopy; metabolism; urine

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