Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation

Cellular and Molecular Biology Letters

Editor-in-Chief: /

4 Issues per year


Impact Factor 2014: 1.593
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.647

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2014: 0.670
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2014: 0.620
Impact per Publication (IPP) 2014: 1.843

VolumeIssuePage

Sclerotia of the acellular (true) slime mould Fuligo septica as a model to study melanization and anabiosis

1Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, ul. Gronostajowa 7, 30-387, Kraków, Poland

2Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden

© 2007 University of Wrocław, Poland. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0)

Citation Information: Cellular and Molecular Biology Letters. Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 130–143, ISSN (Online) 1689-1392, DOI: 10.2478/s11658-007-0047-5, October 2007

Publication History

Published Online:
2007-10-29

Abstract

Acellular (true) slime moulds (Myxomycetes) are capable of a transition to the stage of sclerotium — a dormant form of plasmodium produced under unfavourable environmental conditions. In this study, sclerotia of Fuligo septica were analyzed by means of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The moulds were cultivated in vitro on filter paper, fed with oat flour, and kept until the plasmodia began to produce sclerotia. The obtained sclerotia differed in colour from yellow through orange to dark-brown. The EPR spectra revealed a free radical, melanin-like signal correlated with the depth of the colour; it was strongest in the dark sclerotia. Sclerotization only took place when the plasmodia were starved and very slowly dried. Only the yellow sclerotia were able to regenerate into viable plasmodia. This suggests that myxomycete cytoplasm dehydration is an active process regulated metabolically. Plasmodial sclerotization may therefore serve as a convenient model system to study the regulation of cytoplasmatic water balance, and sclerotia as a convenient material for EPR measurements, combining the quality of plasmodia with the technical simplicity of the measurements characteristic of dry spores. Darkening of the sclerotia is most probably a pathological phenomenon connected with the impairment of water balance during sclerotization.

Keywords: Aquaporins; Dehydration; EPR; Melanin; Myxomycetes; Pigmentation

  • [1] Stephenson, S.L. and Stempen, H. Myxomycetes. A Handbook of Slime Molds, 1st edition, Timber Press, Inc., Portland, Oregon, 1994 (paperback edition printed 2000).

  • [2] Towpik, J. Regulation of mitochondrial translation in yeast. Cell. Mol. Biol. Lett. 10 (2005) 571–594.

  • [3] Rakoczy, L. [The acellular slime moulds (Myxomycetes) — a model system for the modern biology. in: Application of the In Vitro Cultures in Plant Physiology] (Dubert, F., Ed.), 1st edition, The Franciszek Górski Department of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Science, Kraków, Poland, 1995, 301–308.

  • [4] Płonka, P.M. and Rakoczy, L. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) as a method for studying the biology of the acellular slime moulds (Myxomycetes). Acta Physiol. Plant., 19 suppl. (1997) 233.

  • [5] Płonka, P.M. and Rakoczy, L. [Usefulness of the EPR method in the research on slime moulds. in: Application of the In Vitro Cultures in Plant Physiology] (Dubert, F. and Skoczowski, A., Eds.), 1st edition, The Franciszek Górski Department of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Science, Kraków, Poland, 1997, 175–180.

  • [6] Rakoczy, L. and Panz, T. Melanin revealed in spores of true slime moulds using the electron paramagnetic resonance method. Acta Protozool. 33 (1994) 227–231.

  • [7] Loganathan, L. and Kalyanasundram, I. The melanin of the myxomycete Stemonitis herbatica. Acta Protozool. 38 (1999) 97–103.

  • [8] Sarna, T. and Lukiewicz, S. The double role of water in quantitative electron spin resonance (ESR) determinations on samples of biological materials. Folia Histochem. Cytochem. (Krakow) 9 (1971) 203–216.

  • [9] Płonka, P.M. and Rakoczy, L. [Heme and non-heme iron complexes of nitric oxide in the plasmodia of acellular slime moulds cultured in vitro]. Zesz. Probl. Post. N. Roln. 473 (2000) 249–259.

  • [10] Płonka, P.M. and Rakoczy, L. The electron paramagnetic resonance signals of the acellular slime mould Physarum nudum plasmodia irradiated with white light. Curr. Top. Biophys. 21 (1997) 83–86.

  • [11] Rakoczy L. and Płonka, P.M. [Accumulation of manganese in plasmodia of the acellular slime mould (Myxomycetes) Metatrichia vesparium]. Ochr. Środ. Zas. Nat. 18 (1997) 299–308.

  • [12] Rakoczy L. [Preservation of the ability to sporulate of the myxomycete Physarum polycephalum in its dormant stage — spherules. in: Application ofthe In Vitro Cultures in Plant Physiology] (Dubert, F. and Skoczowski, A., Eds.), 1st edition, The Franciszek Górski Department of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Science, Kraków, Poland, 1997, 467–473.

  • [13] Verkman, A.S. More than just water channels: unexpected cellular roles of aquaporins. J. Cell Sci. 118 (2005) 3225–3232. http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.02519 [CrossRef]

  • [14] Levin, M.H. and Verkman, A.S. Aquaporin-3-dependent cell migration and proliferation during corneal re-epithelialization. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47 (2006) 4365–4372. http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.06-0335 [CrossRef]

  • [15] Verkman A. Role of aquaporins in endothelial water transport. J. Anat. 200 (2002) 528. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1469-7580.2002.00058.x [CrossRef]

  • [16] Felix, C.C., Hyde, J.S., Sarna, T. and Sealy, R.C. Interactions of melanin with metal ions. Electron spin resonance evidence for chelate complexes of metal ions with free radicals. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 100 (1978) 3922–3926. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja00480a044 [CrossRef]

  • [17] Deibel, R.M.B. and Chedekel, M.R. Biosynthetic and structural studies on pheomelanin. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 104 (1982) 7306–7309. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja00389a066 [CrossRef]

  • [18] Lukiewicz, S.J. and Sarna, T. Double internal standard for quantitative demonstration of free radicals. Folia Histochem. Cytochem. 9 (1971) 127–128.

  • [19] Sarna, T. and Plonka, P.M. Biophysical studies of melanin: paramagnetic, ion-exchange and redox properties of melanin pigments and their photoreactivity. in: Biomedical ESR. Biological Magnetic Resonance Series. vol. 23. (Eaton, S.S., Eaton, G.R. and Berliner, L.J., Eds.), 1st edition, Kluwer Acad. Publ., The Netherlands-New York-Boston, 2005, 125–146.

  • [20] Commoner, B., Townsend, J. and Pake, G.W. Free radicals in biological materials. Nature 174 (1954) 689–691. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/174689a0 [CrossRef]

  • [21] Sealy, R.C., Hyde, J.S., Felix, C.C., Menon, I.A., Prota, G., Swartz, H.M., Persad, S. and Haberman, H.F. Novel free radicals in synthetic and natural pheomelanins: Distinction between dopa melanins and cysteinyldopa melanins by ESR spectroscopy. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 79 (1982) 2885–2889. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.79.9.2885 [CrossRef]

  • [22] Yordanov, N.D. and Pachova, Z. Gamma-irradiated dry fruits. An example of a wide variety of long-time dependent EPR spectra. Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 63 (2006) 891–895. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2005.10.023 [CrossRef]

  • [23] McCormick, J.J., Blomquist, J.C. and Rusch H.P. Isolation and characterization of a galactosamine wall from spores and spherules of Physarum polycephalum. J. Bacteriol. 104 (1970) 1119–1125.

  • [24] Plonka, P.M. and Grabacka, M. Melanin synthesis in microorganisms — biotechnological and medical aspects. Acta Biochim. Pol. 53 (2006) 429–443.

  • [25] Slominski, A., Tobin, D.J., Shibahara, S. and Wortsman, J. Melanin pigmentation in mammalian skin and its hormonal regulation. Physiol. Rev. 84 (2004) 1155–1228. http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physrev.00044.2003 [CrossRef]

  • [26] Wood, J.M., Jimbow, K., Boissy, R.E., Slominski, A., Plonka, P.M., Slawinski, J., Wortsman, J. and Tosk, J. What is the use of generating melanin? Exp. Dermatol. 8 (1999) 153–164. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0625.1999.tb00365.x [CrossRef]

  • [27] Talarczyk, A. and Hennig, J. Early defence responses in plants infected with pathogenic organisms. Cell. Mol. Biol. Lett. 6 (2001) 955–970.

  • [28] Sommer, A., Ne’eman, E., Steffens, J.C., Mayer, A.M. and Harel, E. Import, targeting, and processing of a plant polyphenol oxidase. Plant Physiol. 105 (1994) 1301–1311. http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.105.4.1301 [CrossRef]

  • [29] Rakoczy, L. and Płonka, P.M. [Plasmodia of acellular slime moulds — materials for verification of the procedure used for natural melanin purification.] Zesz. Probl. Post. N. Roln. 473 (2000) 267–277.

  • [30] Majcherczyk, A., Rakoczy, L. and Hüttermann A. A method for separation of pigments from plasmodia of the true slime molds, Physarum polycephalum and Physarum nudum. Anal. Biochem. 160 (1987) 178–183. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0003-2697(87)90628-2 [CrossRef]

  • [31] Okazaki, M., Kuwata, K., Miki, Y., Shiga, S. and Shiga, T. Electron spin relaxation of synthetic melanin and melanin-containing human tissues as studied by electron spin echo and electron spin resonance. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 242 (1985) 197–205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0003-9861(85)90493-X [CrossRef]

  • [32] Jara, J.R., Solano, F., Garcia-Borron, J. Aroca, P. and Lozano, P. Regulation of mammalian melanogenesis II: the role of metal cations. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1035 (1990) 276–285.

  • [33] Napolitano, A., Di Donato, P. and Prota, G. Zinc-catalyzed oxidation of 5-S-cysteinyldopa to 2,2′-bi(2H-1,4-benzothiazine): Tracking the biosynthetic pathway of trichochromes, the characteristic pigments of red hair. J. Org. Chem. 66 (2001) 6958–6966. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jo010320g

  • [34] Zhulidov, D.A., Robarts, R.D., Zhulidov, A.V., Zhulidova, O.V., Markelov, D.A., Rusanov, V.A. and Headley, J.V. Zinc accumulation by the slime mold Fuligo septica (L.) Wiggers in the former Soviet Union and North Korea. J. Environ. Qual. 31 (2002) 1038–1042. http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/jeq2002.1038 [CrossRef]

  • [35] Buitink, J., Dzuba, S.A., Hoekstra, F.A. and Tsvetkov, Y.D. Pulsed EPR spin-probe study of intracellular glasses in seed and pollen. J. Magn. Reson. 142 (2000) 364–368. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jmre.1999.1950 [CrossRef]

  • [36] Rakoczy, L. and Płonka, P. [Pigment changes in irradiated plasmodia of the acellular slime moulds Physarum polycephalum and Physarum nudum. in: Application of the In Vitro Cultures in Plant Physiology] (Dubert, F., Ed.), 1st edition, The Franciszek Górski Department of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Science, Kraków, Poland, 1995, 309–315.

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

[1]
Magdalena Zdybel, Barbara Pilawa, Ewa Buszman, and Dorota Wrześniok
Chemical Physics Letters, 2013, Volume 556, Page 278
[2]
Artur Beberok, Ewa Buszman, Magdalena Zdybel, Barbara Pilawa, and Dorota Wrześniok
Chemical Physics Letters, 2010, Volume 497, Number 1-3, Page 115
[3]
Magdalena Zdybel, Ewa Chodurek, and Barbara Pilawa
Applied Magnetic Resonance, 2011, Volume 40, Number 1, Page 113
[4]
Paulina Janik, Grzegorz Tylko, Beata Ostachowicz, and Katarzyna Turnau
Microscopy Research and Technique, 2010, Volume 73, Number 12, Page 1134
[5]
P. M. Plonka, T. Passeron, M. Brenner, D. J. Tobin, S. Shibahara, A. Thomas, A. Slominski, A. L. Kadekaro, D. Hershkovitz, E. Peters, J. J. Nordlund, Z. Abdel-Malek, K. Takeda, R. Paus, J. P. Ortonne, V. J. Hearing, and K. U. Schallreuter
Experimental Dermatology, 2009, Volume 18, Number 9, Page 799

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.