Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Open Access

Open Access

An integrated and validated DNA-based protocol developed to fight against commercial frauds – A case of fraudulent substitutions for deer products

W.M. Sin1 / Y.K. Tam1 / SK Tsui1 / CS Ng1 / CS Mok1 / 1

1Government Laboratory, Ho Man Tin Government Offices, 88 Chung Hau Street, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR).

©2013 Versita Sp. z o.o.. This content is open access.

Citation Information: DNA Barcodes. Volume 1, Pages 27–34, ISSN (Online) 2299-1077, DOI: 10.2478/dna-2013-0001, February 2013

Publication History

Received:
2012-08-27
Accepted:
2012-11-22
Published Online:
2013-02-14

This article offers supplementary material which is provided at the end of the article.

Abstract

Applying molecular techniques for identification of natural products of trade have proved to be a robust tool to resolve species or populationlevel differences for cases where reliance on morphological characteristics is impractical or impossible. An integrated DNA approach was designed for authentication of deer products. A combination of two specific PCR systems targeting respectively the deer cytochrome b (cytb) and 16S ribosomal RNA (16SrRNA) gene was adopted to authenticate samples of deer in origin. For those samples that were found not to be deer, their identities were then confirmed by DNA barcoding of cytochrome c oxidase I (COI). The advantage of using this approach is that screening for the presence of the target species, i.e. deer, can be done in an efficient manner while the identity of those products screened out to be fake are conclusively revealed. The method is first validated using different parts and products of deer, namely the velvet antler, ossified antler, tendon and also deer glue which is highly processed. The developed protocol was then applied to a forensic case that involved the substitution of deer tendon by cattle or water buffalo tendon.

Keywords: Deer products; Wildlife forensic; Iintegrated DNA approach; Deer specific PCR analysis; DNA barcode

  • Mafra I, Ferreira IMPLVO, Oliveira MBPP (2008) Food authentication by PCR-based methods. Eur Food Res Technol 227: 649–665. [Web of Science]

  • Reid LM, O’Donnell CP, Downey G (2006) Recent technological advances for the determination of food authenticity. Trends in Food Sci & Tech 17: 344-353.

  • Woolfe M, Primrose S (2004) Food forensics: using DNA technology to combat misdescription and fraud. Trends in Biotech 22: 222-226.

  • Tasara T, Schumacher S, Stephan R (2004) Conventional and real-time PCR–based approaches for molecular detection and quantitation of bovine species material in edible gelatin. J Food Prot 68: 2420-2426.

  • The Consumer Council, HKSAR (2012) Dishonest traders sold cattle tendons for deer tendons. CHOICE. 425: 38-39.

  • Dalton DL, Kotze A. (2011) DNA barcoding as a tool for species identification in three forensic wildlife cases in South Africa. Forensic Sci Int 207(1-3): e51-54. [Web of Science]

  • Johnson RN (2011) The use of DNA identification in prosecuting wildlife-traffickers in Australia: do the penalties fit the crimes? Forensic Sci Med Pathol 6: 211-216. [Web of Science]

  • Eaton MJ, Meyers GL, Kolokotronis SO, Leslie MS, Martin AP, Amato G (2010) Barcoding bushmeat: molecular identification of Central African and South American harvested vertebrates. Conserv Genet 11: 1389–1404. [Web of Science]

  • Yancy HF, Zemlak TS, Mason JA, Washington JD, Tenge BJ, Nguyen NLet al (2008) Potential use of DNA barcodes in regulatory science: applications of the Regulatory Fish Encyclopedia. J Food Prot. 71: 210-217.Table 1. Nucleotide sequences of specific primers used in this study.

  • Cao J, Xu J, Liu R, Yu K, Wang C (2011) Specific PCR detection of tiger, leopard, and lion ingredients from test samples. J AOAC Int 94: 1200-1205. [PubMed]

  • Hanner R, Becker S, Ivanova NV, Steinke D (2011) FISH-BOL and seafood identification: geographically dispersed case studies reveal systemic market substitution across Canada. Mitochondr DNA. 22 Suppl 1: 106-122. [Web of Science] [CrossRef]

  • Handy SM, Deeds JR, Ivanova NV, Hebert PDN, Hanner R, Ormos A et al (2011) A single laboratory validated method for the generation of DNA barcodes for the identification of fish for regulatory compliance. J AOAC Int 94: 201-210. [PubMed]

  • U. S. Food and Drug Administration (2011) Single laboratory validated method for DNA-barcoding for the species identification of fish for FDA regulatory compliance. http:// www.fda.gov/Food/ScienceResearch/LaboratoryMethods/ ucm237391.htm.

  • Palmieri L, Bozza E, Giongo L (2009) Soft Fruit Traceability in Food Matrices using Real-Time PCR. Nutrients 1: 316-328. [Web of Science]

  • Wang Q, Zhang X, Zhang HY, Zhang J, Chen GQ, Zhao DH et al (2010) Identification of 12 animal species meat by T-RFLP on the 12S rRNA gene. Meat Sci.85: 265-269. [Web of Science]

  • Rojas M, González I, Pavón MA, Pegels N, Lago A, Hernández Pee et al (2010) Novel TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for verifying the authenticity of meat and commercial meat products from game birds. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 27: 749-763. [Web of Science]

  • Farrokhi R, Joozani RJ (2011) Identification of pork genome in commercial meat extracts for Halal authentication by SYBR green I real-time PCR. Int J Food Sci Tech 46: 951– 955. [Web of Science]

  • Ha WY, Reid DG, Kam WL, Lau YY, Sham WC, Tam SY et al (2011) Genetic differentiation between fake abalone and genuine Haliotis species using the forensically informative nucleotide sequencing (FINS) method. J Agric Food Chem 59: 5195-5203. [Web of Science] [PubMed]

  • Haider N, Nabulsi I, AI Safadi B. (2011) Identification of meat species by PCR-RFLP of the mitochondrial COI gene. Meat Sci 90: 490-493. [Web of Science]

  • Chen PY, Stokes AG, McKittrick J (2009) Comparison of the structure and mechanical properties of bovine femur bone and antler of the North American elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis). Acta Biomaterialia 5:693–706. [PubMed]

  • Kawtikwar PS, Bhagwat DA, Sakarkar DM (2010) Deer anlters - Traditional use and future perspectives. Indian J Trad Knowledge 9:245-251.

  • Ratnasingham S, Hebert PDN (2007) BOLD : The Barcode of Life Data System (www.barcodinglife.org). Mol Ecol Notes. 7: 355–364. [PubMed] [Web of Science]

  • Chen Y, Wu YJ, Wang J and Xu BL (2009) Identification of Cervidae DNA in feedstuff using a real-time polymerase chain reaction method with the new fluorescence intercalating dye EvaGreen. J AOAC Int 92: 175-180. [PubMed]

  • Shinoda N, Takagi M, Hayakawa T, Onodera T, Sugiura K (2010) Development of primers for fetection of multiple cervid Species In Animal Feed. J Food Safety 30: 916–923. [Web of Science]

Supplementary Article Materials

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.