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Folia Medica

The Journal of Medical University-Plovdiv


SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2015: 0.181

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Online
ISSN
1314-2143
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Early Noninvasive Diagnosis of Neurodegenerative Diseases

Stoyan Danev1 / Drozdstoy St. Stoyanov1

Department of Clinical Laboratory, St Anna University Hospital, Sofia1

St Ivan Rilski State Psychiatric Hospital, Sofia2

This content is open access.

Citation Information: Folia Medica. Volume 52, Issue 2, Pages 5–13, ISSN (Online) 1314-2143, ISSN (Print) 0204-8043, DOI: 10.2478/v10153-010-0041-y, August 2010

Publication History

Published Online:
2010-08-25

Early Noninvasive Diagnosis of Neurodegenerative Diseases

This paper reviews the contemporary trends in the pathobiochemistry of neurodegenerative disorders with respect to their early predictive diagnosis and possible treatment interventions. If we consider the current epidemiological data related to neurodegenerative disorders, medicine is going to face in the near future latent pandemic situations. The introduction puts an emphasis on the emerging importance of one major cluster of neurodegenerative disorders: diseases of the abnormal protein beta-conformation. The cluster includes such significant diseases as Alzheimer, Pick, Huntington, Parkinson disease, as well as the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (Creuzfeldt-Jakob disease). The pathogenetic mechanisms in the determination of this group of disorders are explored with an emphasis on the impairment of post-synthetic chaperone correction. The central role of a number of such protein products is discussed. In particular the pathobiochemical mechanisms concerning the formation of beta-amyloid, alpha and beta synucleins, scrapie isoform of the prion protein are presented. A new diagnostic principle allowing the early and specific diagnosis of the conformation diseases protein via amplification techniques is presented. These methods compete in sensitivity with the PCR methods and shows promises for effective treatment. In conclusion, beta-pathies are considered a suitable example for the modern concept of cluster and prototype diagnosis in medicine and especially in clinical neurosciences.

Ранний Неинвазивный Диагноз НевродегенеративныХ Заболеваний

В настоящей работе авторы развивают современныетенденции в патобиоХимии невродегенеративныХ заболеваний по отношению к раннему диагнозу и возможным терапевтическим вмешательствам. Если принять во внимание современные эпидемиологические данные относительно невродегенеративныХ заболе- ваний, то медицина в недалеком будущем может оказаться перед ситуацией латентной пандемии.

Введение ставит акцент на невродегенеративные заболевания: болезни абнормной белковой бета-конформации. К этой группеотносятсятакие значимые диагностические единицы как Альцгеймера,Пика, Гентингтона болезни, таки трансмиссивные спонгиформенные энцефалопатии (Крейтцфелъдта- Якоба болезнь). Изучаются патогенетические меХа-низмы при определении этой группы с направлен- ностью к поражению меХанизмов постсинтетической шапероновой коррекции.

Обсуждается роль многиХ протеинов, в частнос- ти меХанизмов, затрагивающиХ образование бета-амилоидныХ цепей, альфа и бета-синуклеинов, скрей-пи изоформы прионовыХ белков.

Представляется новый диагностический принцип, позволяющий постановкураннего и специфического диагноза болезней белковой конформации посредством амплификационной теХники. Эти методы по своей специфичности сравнимы с чувствительностью PCR и раскрывают возможности эффективного лечения.

Авторы приХодят к выводу, что бетапатии можно считать удачной иллюстрацией современной концепции кластерного и прототипного диагнозов в медицине и более конкретно в клиническиХ невро-наукаХ.

Keywords: neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer; Pick; Huntington; Parkinson disease); protein amplification techniques; synucleins; prionoses; beta-pandemics)

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