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International Journal of the Biology, Chemistry, Physics, and Technology of Wood

Editor-in-Chief: Faix, Oskar

Editorial Board Member: Daniel, Geoffrey / Militz, Holger / Rosenau, Thomas / Salmen, Lennart / Sixta, Herbert / Vuorinen, Tapani / Argyropoulos, Dimitris S. / Balakshin, Yu / Barnett, J. R. / Berry, Richard / Burgert, Ingo / Evans, Robert / Evtuguin, Dmitry V. / Frazier, Charles E. / Fukushima, Kazuhiko / Gellerstedt, Göran / Gindl-Altmutter, Wolfgang / Glasser, W. G. / Heitner, Cyril / Holmbom, Bjarne / Isogai, Akira / Kadla, John F. / Kleen, Marjatta / Koch, Gerald / Lachenal, Dominique / Mansfield, Shawn D. / Morrell, J.J. / Niemz, Peter / Pizzi, Antonio / Ragauskas, Arthur J. / Ralph, John / Rice, Robert W. / Salin, Jarl-Gunnar / Schmitt, Uwe / Schultz, Tor P. / Schwanninger, Manfred / Sipilä, Jussi / Tamminen, Tarja / Viikari, Liisa / Welling, Johannes / Willför, Stefan / Yoshihara, Hiroshi

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Rank 8 out of 64 in category Forestry and 2 out of 21 in category Materials Science, Paper & Wood in the 2013 Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Report/Science Edition



Small angle scattering in the Porod region from hydrated paper sheets at varying humidities

Christopher J. Garvey1 / Ian H. Parker2 / Robert B. Knott3 / George P. Simon4





Corresponding author. Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai NSW 2234, Australia. E-mail:

Citation Information: Holzforschung. Volume 58, Issue 5, Pages 473–479, ISSN (Print) 0018-3830, DOI: 10.1515/HF.2004.071, June 2005

Publication History

June 16, 2003
Published Online:


The microscopic changes in the structure of paper at different equilibrium moisture contents were examined using the novel technique of contrast variation small angle neutron scattering (SANS). Contrast variation, by appropriate selection of the H2O:D2O ratio, was used to simplify the scattering from hydrated paper to a two-phase approximation. The two phases were paper polymers (cellulose, lignin and hemicelluloses) and a phase consisting of water and voids. The two-phase approximation is justified by consideration of the chemistry and density of each of the polymer species belonging to paper, and by matching the scattering length density of the sorbed moisture to air. The neutron intensity at the higher scattering angles examined was successfully fitted using the Porod law, which is applicable to scattering from a two-phase system at the high scattering angle limit. This limit is related to the specific surface area between the two phases. The limiting scattered intensity of neutrons was found to increase with increasing moisture content for a range of paper materials. It is concluded that the sorption of water increased the limiting intensity because water disrupted polymer-polymer bonding. The Porod law also predicts the slope of the intensity/scattering angle curve at the high scattering angle limit.

Keywords: contrast variation; hydrogen bonding; paper hydration; Porod law; SANS; small angle neutron scattering

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