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International Journal of the Biology, Chemistry, Physics, and Technology of Wood

Editor-in-Chief: Faix, Oskar

Editorial Board Member: Daniel, Geoffrey / Militz, Holger / Rosenau, Thomas / Salmen, Lennart / Sixta, Herbert / Vuorinen, Tapani / Argyropoulos, Dimitris S. / Balakshin, Yu / Barnett, J. R. / Berry, Richard / Burgert, Ingo / Evans, Robert / Evtuguin, Dmitry V. / Frazier, Charles E. / Fukushima, Kazuhiko / Gellerstedt, Göran / Gindl-Altmutter, Wolfgang / Glasser, W. G. / Heitner, Cyril / Holmbom, Bjarne / Isogai, Akira / Kadla, John F. / Kleen, Marjatta / Koch, Gerald / Lachenal, Dominique / Mansfield, Shawn D. / Morrell, J.J. / Niemz, Peter / Pizzi, Antonio / Ragauskas, Arthur J. / Ralph, John / Rice, Robert W. / Salin, Jarl-Gunnar / Schmitt, Uwe / Schultz, Tor P. / Schwanninger, Manfred / Sipilä, Jussi / Tamminen, Tarja / Viikari, Liisa / Welling, Johannes / Willför, Stefan / Yoshihara, Hiroshi

8 Issues per year

IMPACT FACTOR 2013: 2.339
Rank 8 out of 64 in category Forestry and 2 out of 21 in category Materials Science, Paper & Wood in the 2013 Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Report/Science Edition

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An assessment of the feasibility of ultrasound as a defect detector in lumber

Herman van Dyk1 / Robert W. Rice2



Corresponding author. University of Maine, 119 Nutting Hall, Orono, ME 04469, USA.

Citation Information: Holzforschung. Volume 59, Issue 4, Pages 441–445, ISSN (Online) 1437-434X, ISSN (Print) 0018-3830, DOI: 10.1515/HF.2005.072, July 2005

Publication History

January 13, 2005
March 7, 2005
Published Online:


This study investigated the limitations of certain attributes for use in detecting internal defects using ultrasonic methods in spruce dimension lumber. Wave propagation in the radial direction and the effect of induced defects on ultrasonic wave characteristics were examined. Ultrasonic velocity, a parameter often applied, was found to be ineffective due to changes in wavelength and frequency when large defects were present. Amplitude, peak frequency magnitude and the area under the frequency spectra showed statistically significant differences between clear and defect-bearing samples, but among-sample variation was found to be too high because of localized density differences and microstructure, so that these methods were not consistently reliable. When sound intensity level was calculated, the variation among samples decreased and distinctions could be made between clear and defect-bearing wood, both within and among the samples tested. Certain attributes of the frequency spectra also showed clear changes with the introduction of defects.

Keywords: defect detection; ultrasonic evaluation of wood

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