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Comparison of Estimators for Measures of Linkage Disequilibrium
1University of Leipzig
1University of Leipzig
Citation Information: The International Journal of Biostatistics. Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages –, ISSN (Online) 1557-4679, DOI: 10.2202/1557-4679.1162, January 2010
- Published Online:
The measurement of biallelic pair-wise association called linkage disequilibrium (LD) is an important issue in order to understand the genomic architecture. A plethora of measures of association in two by two tables have been proposed in the literature. Beside the problem of choosing an appropriate measure, the problem of their estimation has been neglected in the literature. It needs to be emphasized that the definition of a measure and the choice of an estimator function for it are conceptually unrelated tasks.In this paper, we compare the performance of various estimators for the three popular LD measures D', r and Y in a simulation study for small to moderate samples sizes (N<=500). The usual frequency-plug-in estimators can lead to unreliable or undefined estimates. Estimators based on the computationally expensive volume measures have been proposed recently as a remedy to this well-known problem. We confirm that volume estimators have better expected mean square error than the naive plug-in estimators. But they are outperformed by estimators plugging-in easy to calculate non-informative Bayesian probability estimates into the theoretical formulae for the measures. Fully Bayesian estimators with non-informative Dirichlet priors have comparable accuracy but are computationally more expensive.We recommend the use of non-informative Bayesian plug-in estimators based on Jeffreys' prior, in particular when dealing with SNP array data where the occurrence of small table entries and table margins is likely.