Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details

International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health


IMPACT FACTOR 2014: 0.695
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.332

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2014: 0.370
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2014: 0.554
Impact per Publication (IPP) 2014: 1.071

Open Access
Online
See all formats and pricing



Select Volume and Issue
Loading journal volume and issue information...

Self-Medication with Antibiotics in Jordanian Population

Sayer Al-Azzam1 / Belal Al-Husein1 / Firas Alzoubi1 / Majed Masadeh1 / "Mohammad Ali" Al-Horani1

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan1

Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan2

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan3

Royal Medical Services, Irbid, Jordan4

This content is open access.

Citation Information: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health. Volume 20, Issue 4, Pages 373–380, ISSN (Online) 1896-494X, ISSN (Print) 1232-1087, DOI: 10.2478/v10001-007-0038-9, December 2007

Publication History

Published Online:
2007-12-28

Self-Medication with Antibiotics in Jordanian Population

Objectives: A survey was conducted to estimate the prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics in Jordan and evaluate the factors associated with antibiotic misuse. Methods: Validated questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of 1943 households (9281 persons) selected from among different cities in Jordan. Results: 842 (39.5%) of 2133 antibiotic users identified via the survey had used antibiotics without a prescription within a one-month study period. Self-medication with antibiotics was found to be significantly associated with age, income, and level of education. The main reason for self-medication as reported by the participants was their previous experience on the efficacy of treatment. The main sources of antibiotics were the previously prescribed pharmaceuticals stored in the household and those purchased in pharmacies. Conclusion: The prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics in Jordan is alarmingly high. Given the growing global resistance to antibiotics and the documented health problems related to their inappropriate use, our findings may have major public health policy implications in Jordan.

Keywords: Self-medication; Antibiotics; Jordan; Abuse; Mediterranean; Prescription

  • Awad A, Eltayeb I, Matowe L Thalib L. Self-medication with antibiotics and antimalarials in the community of Khartoum State, Sudan.J Pharm Pharm Sci 2005;8:326-31. [PubMed]

  • Parimi N, Pinto Pereira LM, Prabhakar P. Caregivers' practices, knowledge and beliefs of antibiotics in paediatric upper respiratory tract infections in Trinidad and Tobago: a cross-sectional study.BMC Fam Pract 2004;5:28. [CrossRef]

  • Sturm AW, van der Pol R, Smits AJ, van Hellemondt FM, Mouton SW, Jamil B, et al. Over-the-counter availability of antimicrobial agents, self-medication and patterns of resistance in Karachi, Pakistan.J Antimicrob Chemother 1997;39:543-7. [CrossRef]

  • Servidoni AB, Coelho L, Navarro ML, Gobbi de Ávila F, Mezzalira R. Self-medication profile of ENT patients.Rev Bras Otorrinolaringol (Engl Ed) 2006;72:83-8.

  • Volpato DE, de Souza BV, Dalla Rosa LG, Melo LH, Stabel Daudt CA, Deboni L. Use of antibiotics without medical prescription.Braz J Infect Dis 2005;9:288-91. [PubMed] [CrossRef]

  • Vaananen MH, Pietila K, Airaksinen M. Self-medication with antibiotic - does it really happen in Europe?Health Polic 2006;77:166-71. [CrossRef]

  • Contopoulos-Ioannidis DG, Koliofoti ID, Koutroumpa IC, Giannakakis IA, Ioannidis JPA. Pathways for inappropriate dispensing of antibiotics for rhinosinusitis: a randomized trial.Clin Infect Dis 2001;33:76-82 [CrossRef]

  • Mitsi G, Jelastopulu E, Basiaris H. Patterns of antibiotic use among adults and parents in the community: a questionnaire-based survey in a Greek urban population.Int J Antimicrob Agents 2005;25:439-43. [CrossRef]

  • Stratchounski LS, Andreeva IV, Ratchina SA, Galkin DV, Petrotchenkova NA, Demin AA, et al. The inventory of antibiotics in Russian home medicine cabinets.Clin Infect Dis 2003;37:498-505. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

  • Richman PB, Garra G, Eskin B, Nashed AH, Cody R. Oral antibiotic use without consulting a physician: a survey of ED patients.Am J Emerg Med 2001;19:57-60. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

  • Raz R, Edelstein H, Grigoryan L. Self-medication with antibiotics by a population in northern Israel.Isr Med Assoc J 2005;7:722-5. [PubMed]

  • Borg MA, Scicluna EA. Over-the-counter acquisition of antibiotics in the Maltese general population.Int J Antimicrob Agents 2002;20:253-7. [PubMed] [CrossRef]

  • Grigoryan L, Haaijer-Rysjamp FM, Burgerhof JG, Mechtler R, Deschepper R, Tambic-Andrasevic A. et al. Self-medication with antimicrobial drugs in Europe.Emerg Infect Dis 2006;12:452-9. [PubMed] [CrossRef]

  • Li LJ, Wang PS. Self-medication with antibiotics: a possible cause of bacterial resistance.Med Hypotheses 2005;65:1000-1. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

  • Bauchner H, Pelton SI, Klein JO. Parents, physicians, and antibiotic use.Pediatrics 1999;103:395-401. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

  • Bronzwaer SL, Cars O, Buchholz U. A European study on the relationship between antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance.Emerg Infect Dis 2002;8:278-82. [PubMed] [CrossRef]

  • Seppala H, Klaukka T, Vuopio-Varkila J, Muotiala A, Helenius H, Lager K et al. The effect of changes in the consumption of macrolide antibiotics on erythromycin resistance in group A streptococci in Finland. Finnish Study Group for Antimicrobial Resistance. N Engl J Med 1997;337:441-6.

  • Austin DJ, Kristinsson KG, Anderson RM. The relationship between the volume of antimicrobial consumption in human communities and the frequency of resistance.Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1999;96:1152-6. [CrossRef]

  • Kardas P, Devine S, Golembesky A, Roberts C. A systematic review and meta-analysis of misuse of antibiotic therapies in the community.Int J Antimicrob Agents 2005;26:106-13. [PubMed] [CrossRef]

  • Svensson E, Haaijer-Ruskamp FM, Lundborg CS. Self-medication with antibiotics in a Swedish general population.Scand J Infect Dis 2004;36:450-2. [CrossRef]

  • Lacy CF, Armstrong LL, Goldman MP. Drug Information Handbook. Pocket PC Edition. October 2006

  • Mainous AG 3rd, Cheng AY, Garr RC, Tilley BC, Everett CJ, McKeeet MD. Nonprescribed antimicrobial drugs in Latino community, South Carolina.Emerg Infect Dis 2005;11:883-8.

  • Al-Bakri AG, Bustanji Y, Yousef AM. Community consumption of antibacterial drugs within the Jordanian population: sources, patterns and appropriateness.Int J Antimicrob Agents 2005;26:389-95.

  • Linder JA, Stafford RS. Antibiotic treatment of adults with sore throat by community primary care physicians: a national survey, 1989-1999.JAMA 2001 Sep 12;286:1181-6.

  • Arnold SR, To T, McIsaac WJ, Wang EEL. Antibiotic prescribing for upper respiratory tract infection: the importance of diagnostic uncertainty.J Pediatr 2005;146:222-6. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

  • Fischer T, Fischer S, Kochen MM, Hummers-Pradier E. Influence of patient symptoms and physical findings on general practitioners' treatment of respiratory tract infections: a direct observation study.BMC Fam Pract 2005;6:6. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.