Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation

Journal of Landscape Ecology

The Journal of Czech National Chapter of the Association for Landscape Ecology (CZ-IALE)

3 Issues per year

Open Access
VolumeIssuePage

Open Access

Landscape Ecology and the General Theory of Resources: Comparing Two Paradigms

Almo Farina1

Department of Basic Sciences and Fundamentals, Urbino University, Italy1

This content is open access.

Citation Information: Journal of Landscape Ecology. Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 18–29, ISSN (Print) 1803-2427, DOI: 10.2478/v10285-012-0031-2, August 2012

Publication History

Published Online:
2012-08-08

Landscape Ecology and the General Theory of Resources: Comparing Two Paradigms

This paper is an attempt to connect the General Theory of Resources (GTR) with the principles that guide the Landscape Ecology Principles (LEP). The recent GTR is based on the assumption that resources are the common requirement for individual species, populations, communities and ecosystems. We therefore describe the main characteristics of resources, while the biosemiotic mechanisms with which to track them are also discussed.

Moreover, and with a view to their reinterpretation, we have confronted the issues of patch shape, heterogeneity, corridors, ecotones and fragmentation with these GTR principles. According to the thesis presented in this paper, resources can be tracked using the specific spatial configuration carrier of meaning (the eco-field), while the major features of landscapes, such as size, shape and the distribution of patches, are used by organisms (animals) as a semiotic cue with which to identify eco-fields and associated resources.

  • Allen, T.F.H., Hoekstra, T.W. (1992). Toward a unified ecology. Columbia University Press, New York.

  • Anonymous (2003). Welcome to the anthropocene. Nature 424:709.

  • Barbieri, M. (2003). The organic codes. An introduction to semantic biology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

  • Barbieri, M. (2008). What is Biosemiotics. Biosemiotics 1:1-3. [Web of Science] [CrossRef]

  • Barrett, T. I., Farina, A. & Barrett, G. W. (2009). Aesthetic landscapes: an emergent component in sustaining societies. Landscape Ecology, DOI:10.1007/s10980-009-9354-8. [CrossRef] [Web of Science]

  • Collinge, S.K. (2000). Effects of grassland fragmentation on insect species loss, colonization, and movement patterns. Ecology 81: 2211-2226. [CrossRef]

  • Costanza, R., d'Arge, R., de Groot, R., Farber, S., Grasso, M., Hannon, B., Limburg, K., Naeem, S., O'Neill, R.V., Paruelo, J., Raskin, R.G., Sutton, P. & van der Belt, M. (1997). The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature 387:253-260.

  • Crutzen, P. J. (2002). Geology of mankind. Nature 415: 23.

  • Dostal, P., Breznova, M., Kozlickova, V., Herben, T. & Kovar, P. (2005). Ant-induced soil modification and its effect on plant below-ground biomass. Pedobiologia 49: 127-137. [CrossRef]

  • Farina, A. (2006). Principles and methods in landscape ecology.Towards a science of landscape. Springer, Dordrecht.

  • Farina, A. (2008). The landscape as a semiotic interface between organisms and resources. Biosemiotics 1(1): 75-83. [CrossRef] [Web of Science]

  • Farina, A. (2010). Ecology, Cognition and Landscape.Linking natural and social systems. Springer, Dordrecht.

  • Farina, A. (2011). A biosemiotic perspective for a Resource Criterion: Toward a General Theory of Resources. Biosemiotics DOI: 10.1007/s12304-011-9119-z [Web of Science]

  • Farina, A., Belgrano, A. (2004). The eco-field: A new paradigm for landscape ecology. Ecological Research 19: 107-110. [CrossRef]

  • Farina, A., Belgrano, A. (2006). The eco-field hypothesis: Toward a cognitive landscape. Landscape Ecology 21: 5-17. [CrossRef]

  • Farina, A., Napoletano B. (2010). Rethinking the Landscape: New Theoretical Perspectives for a Powerful Agency. Biosemiotics 3:177-187. DOI 10.1007/s12304-010-9086-9 [CrossRef] [Web of Science]

  • Favareau, D. (2010). Essential reading in Biosemiotics. Springer, New York.

  • Forman, R.T.T., Godron, M. (1986). Landscape ecology. Wiley & Sons, New York.

  • Gilroy, J.J., Sutherland, W.J. (2007). Beyond ecological traps: perceptual errors and undervalued resources. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 22 (7): 351-356. [Web of Science]

  • Gould, P., White, R. (1986). Mental maps. Allen & Unwin, London.

  • Hansen, A.J., di Castri, F. (1992). Landscape boundaries. Consequences for biotic diversity and ecological flows. Springer-Verlag, New York.

  • Hilty, J.A., Lidicker, W. Jr. & Merenlender, A.M. (2006). Corridor ecology. The science and practice of linking landscapes for biodiversity conservation. Island Press, Washington DC.

  • Hoffmayer, J. (2008). Biosemiotics. An Examination into the Signs of Life and the Life of Signs. Scranton University Press, Scranton PA.

  • Holland, M.M., Risser, P.G. & Naiman, R.J. (1991). Ecotones. The role of landscape boundaries in the management and restoration of changing environments. Chapman & Hall, London, UK.

  • Kolasa, J., Pickett, S.T.A. (1991). Ecological heterogeneity. Springer-Verlag, New York.

  • Krummel, J.R., Gardner, R.H., Sugihara, G., O'Neill, R.V. & Coleman, P.R. (1987). Landscape patterns in a disturbed environment. Oikos 48: 321-324. [CrossRef]

  • Macarthur, R.H. (1972). Geographical ecology.Pattern in the distribution of species. Princeton Univesity Press, Princeton, NJ.

  • Maturana, H.R., Varela, J. F. (1980). Autopoiesis and Cognition. The realization of the living. Rediel Publishing Company, Dordrecht, Holland.

  • MEA (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment) (2005a). Ecosystems and human well-being: Synthesis. Island Press, Washington.

  • MEA (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment) (2005b). Ecosystems and human well-being: Biodiversity synthesis. Island Press, Washington.

  • Naveh, Z., Lieberman A.S. (1984). Landscape ecology - Theory and application. Springer-Verlag, New York.

  • Nicholls, C.I., Parrella, M. & Altieri, M.A. (2001). The effects of a vegetational corridor on the abundance and dispersal of insect biodiversity within a northern California organic vineyard. Landscape Ecology 16: 133-146. [CrossRef]

  • Pickett, S.T.A., White, P.S. (1985). The ecology of natural disturbance and patch dynamics. Academic Press, New York.

  • Odling-Smee, F. J. (2003). Niche Construction. Princeton University Press, Princeton NJ.

  • Pulliam, H.R. (1988). Source-sinks, and population regulation. American Naturalist 132: 652-661.

  • Pulliam, H.R. (1996). Sources and sinks: empirical evidence and population conservation. In: Rhodes, O.E., Chesser, R.K., Smith, M.H. (Eds.), Population dynamics in ecological space and time. pp. 45-69. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

  • Saunders, D.A., Hobbs, R.J. & Margules, C.R. (1991). Biological consequences of ecosystem fragmentation: A review. Conservation Biology 9: 1072-1084.

  • Sayer, J., Campbell, B. (2004). The science of sustainable development. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

  • Scheiner, S.M., Hudson, A.J. & VanderMeulen, M.A. (1993). An epistemology for ecology. Bulletin Ecological Society of America 74(1): 17-21.

  • Scheiner, S.M., Willig M.R. (2007). A general theory of ecology. Theoretical Ecology, DOI 10.007/S1 2080-007-0002.0. [Web of Science]

  • Simberloff, D., Farr, J.A., Cox, J. & Mehlman, D.W. (1992). Movement corridors: conservation bargains or poor investment? Conservation Biology 6: 493-504. [CrossRef]

  • Tilman, D. (1985). The resource-ratio hypothesis of plant succession. Am. Nat. 126(6): 825-852.

  • Turner, M.G. (1987). Landscape heterogeneity and disturbance. Springer-Verlag, New York.

  • Turner, M.G. (1989). Landscape ecology: the effect of pattern on process. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 20: 171-197. [CrossRef]

  • Uexküll, J. von (1982). The theory of meaning. Semiotica 42(1): 25-82.

  • Vlasakova, B., Raabova, J., Kyncl, T., Dostal, P., Kovarova, M., Pavel, K. & Herben, T. 2009. Ants accelerate succession from mountain grassland toward spruce forest. Journal of Vegetation Science 20: 577-587. [Web of Science]

  • Wiens, J. (1994). Habitat fragmentation: island v landscape perspectives on bird conservation. Ibis 137: S97-S104.

  • Wiens, J., Milne, B. (1989). Scaling of ‘landscapes’ in landscape ecology, or, landscape ecology from a beetle's perspective. Landscape Ecology 3(2): 87-96 [CrossRef]

  • Wu, J., Hobbs, R. (2002). Key issues and research priorities in landscape ecology: an iioyncratic synthesis. Landscape Ecology 17: 355-365. [Web of Science] [CrossRef]

  • Zalasiewicz, J. (2008). Are we now living in the Anthropocene? GSA Today 18 (2): 4-8. DOI:10.1130/GSAT01802A.1. [CrossRef]

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.