Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Open Access

Open Access

Towards worldwide height system unification using ocean information

1 / C.W. Hughes1 / R.J. Bingham2 / T. Gruber3

1National Oceanography Centre, Joseph Proudman Building, 6 Brownlow Street, Liverpool L3 5DA, United Kingdom

2School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, United Kingdom

3Institut für Astronomische und Physikalische Geodäsie, Technische Universität München, Arcisstrasse 21, 80333 München, Germany

This content is open access.
(CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

Citation Information: Journal of Geodetic Science. Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 302–318, ISSN (Print) 2081-9943, DOI: 10.2478/v10156-012-0004-8, January 2013

Publication History:
Published Online:
2013-01-29

Abstract

We describe the application of ocean levelling to worldwide height system unification. The study involves a comparison of ‘geodetic’ and ‘ocean’ approaches to determination of the mean dynamic topography (MDT) at the coast, from which confidence in the accuracy of stateof- the-art ocean and geoid models can be obtained. We conclude that models are consistent at the sub-decimetre level for the regions that we have studied (North Atlantic coastlines and islands, North American Pacific coast and Mediterranean). That level of consistency provides an estimate of the accuracy of using the ocean models to provide an MDT correction to the national datums of countries with coastlines, and thereby of achieving unification. It also provides a validation of geoid model accuracy for application to height system unification in general. We show how our methods can be applied worldwide, as long as the necessary data sets are available, and explain why such an extension of the present study is necessary if worldwide height system unification is to be realised.

Keywords: Mean Dynamic Topography; National Datums; Ocean and Geoid Models; Ocean Levelling

  • Adam J., Augath W., Brouwer F., Engelhardt G., Gurtner W., Harsson B. G., Ihde J., Ineichen D., Lang H., Luthardt J., Sacher M., Schlüter W., Springer T., Wöppelmann G., 1999, Status and Development of the European Height Systems. pp.55-60 in, Geodesy Beyond 2000. IAG Symposia Volume 121. Proceedings of the IAG General Assembly, Birmingham, July 18-30, 1999. (ed. K-P. Schwarz). Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer Publishing.

  • Altamimi Z., Collilieux X., Métivier L., 2011, ITRF2008: an improved solution of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, J. Geod., 85, 457-473, DOI:10.1007/s00190-011-0444-4.[CrossRef]

  • Andersen O.B., Knudsen P., 2009, DNSC08 mean sea surface and mean dynamic topography models, J. Geophys. Res., 114, C11001, DOI:10.1029/2008JC005179.[CrossRef]

  • Bernier N.B., Thompson K.R., 2006, Predicting the frequency of storm surges and extreme sea levels in the northwest Atlantic, J. Geophys. Res., 111, C10009, DOI:10.1029/2005JC003168.[CrossRef]

  • Bingham R.J., Haines K., Hughes C.W., 2008, Calculating the ocean’s mean dynamic topography from a Mean Sea Surface and a Geoid, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 25, 1808-1822, DOI:10.1175/2008JTECHO568.1.[CrossRef]

  • Brown J.M., Bolaños R., Wolf J., 2011, Impact assessment of advanced coupling features in a tide-surge-wave model, POLCOMS-WAM, in a shallow water application, J. Marine Syst., 87, 13-24, DOI:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2011.02.006.[CrossRef]

  • Cartwright, D.E., Crease, J., 1962, A comparison of the geodetic reference levels of England and France by means of the sea surface, P. Roy. Soc. Lond. A, 273, 558-580, DOI:10.1098/rspa.1963.0109.[CrossRef]

  • Close C., 1922, The second geodetic levelling of England and Wales 1912-1921. Published for the Ordnance Survey by His Majesty’s Stationery Office, London. 62pp. and plates.

  • Cole J., 1939, Revision of first order levelling lower Egypt. Survey Department Paper No. 44, Egyptian Survey Authority, Giza, Egypt.

  • Dean R.G., Walton T.L., 2009, Wave setup. Chapter 1 in, Handbook of Coastal and Ocean Engineering. World Scientific Publishing Co. Ltd. http://www.worldscibooks.com/ engineering/6914.html.

  • Duquenne H., Rebischung P., Duquenne F., Harmel A., Coulomb A., 2007, Status of the zero-order levelling network of France and consequences for UELN. Proceedings of the EUREF Symposium, London, 6-9 June 2007. 5pp.

  • Ekman M., 1989, Impacts of geodynamic phenomena on systems for height and gravity, B. Géod. (J. Geod.), 63, 281-296, DOI:10.1007/BF02520477.[CrossRef]

  • EGG-C 2010. GOCE High Level Processing Facility, GOCE Level 2 Product Data Handbook. The European GOCE Gravity Consortium Document Number GO-MA-HPF-GS-0110 (December 2010). Internal Report of Institute of Astronomical and Physical Geodesy, Technical University Munich, Germany.

  • EVRF 2007. European Vertical Reference Frame 2007. Follow link on ‘Related Projects’ then ‘Height Datum Relations’ from http://www.bkg.bund.de/nn_164794/geodIS/ EVRS/EN/EVRF2007/evrf2007__node.html.

  • Featherstone W.E., Filmer M.S., 2012, The north-south tilt in the Australian Height Datum is explained by the ocean’s mean dynamic topography, J. Geophys. Res., 117, C08035, DOI:10.1029/2012JC007974.[CrossRef]

  • Flather R.A., Smith J.A., Richards J.D., Bell C., Blackman D.L., 1998, Direct estimates of extreme storm surge elevations from a 40-year numerical model simulation and from observations, The Global Atmosphere and Ocean System, 6, 165-176.

  • Flather R.A., 2000, Existing operational oceanography, Coast. Eng., 41, 13-40, DOI:10.1016/S0378-3839(00)00025-9.[CrossRef]

  • Flury J., Rummel R., 2005, Future satellite gravimetry for geodesy, Earth, Moon and Planets, 94, 13-29, DOI:10.1007/s11038-005-3756-7.[CrossRef]

  • Forbes D.L., Manson G.K., Charles J., Thompson K.R., Taylor R.B., 2009, Halifax harbour extreme water levels in the context of climate change: scenarios for a 100-year planning horizon, Geological Survey of Canada. Open File 6346. 22pp.

  • Frihy O.E., 1992, Sea-level rise and shoreline retreat of the Nile Delta promontories, Egypt, Nat. Hazards, 5, 65-81, DOI:10.1007/BF00127140.[CrossRef]

  • Gruber T., Gerlach C., Haagmans R., 2013, Intercontinental height datum connection with GOCE and GPS-levelling data, J. Geod. Sci. 2, 4, 270-280.

  • Hamouda A.Z., 2006, Numerical computations of 1303 tsunamigenic propagation towards Alexandria, Egyptian Coast, J. Afr. Earth Sci., 44, 37-44, DOI:10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2005.11.005.[CrossRef]

  • Higginson S., 2012, Mapping and understanding the mean surface circulation of the North Atlantic: Insights from new geodetic and oceanographic measurements. Unpublished PhD thesis, Dalhousie University. Available from http:// dalspace.library.dal.ca/handle/10222/14866.

  • Holt J.T., James I.D., 2001, An s coordinate density evolving model of the northwest European continental shelf: 1, Model description and density structure, J. Geophys. Res., 106, C7, DOI:10.1029/2000JC000303.[CrossRef]

  • Holt J., Harle J., Proctor R., Michel S., Ashworth M., Batstone C., Allen I., Holmes R., Smyth T., Haines K., Bretherton D., Smith G., 2009, Modelling the global coastal ocean, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. A, 367, 939-951, DOI:10.1098/rsta.2008.0210.[CrossRef]

  • Hughes C.W., Bingham R.J., 2008, An oceanographer’s guide to GOCE and the geoid, Ocean Sci., 4, 15-29, DOI:www.oceansci. net/4/15/2008/.

  • Kistler R., Collins C., Saha S., White G., Woollen J., Kalnay E., Chelliah M., Ebisuzaki W., Kanamitsu M., Kousky V., van den Dool H., Jenne R., Fiorino M., 2001, The NCEP-NCAR 50 year reanalysis: monthly means CD-ROM and documentation, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 82, 247-267.

  • Köhl, A., Stammer, D., Cornuelle, B., 2007, Interannual to decadal changes in the ECCO global synthesis, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 37, 313-337, DOI:10.1175/JPO3014.1.[CrossRef]

  • Köhl A., Stammer D., 2008, Decadal sea level changes in the 50-Year GECCO ocean synthesis, J. Clim., 37, 1876-1890, DOI:10.1175/2007JCLI2081.1.[CrossRef]

  • Marsh R., de Cuevas B.A., Coward A.C., Jacquin J., Hirschi J.J.M., Aksenov Y., Nurser A.J.G., Josey S.A., 2009, Recent changes in the North Atlantic circulation simulated with eddy-permitting and eddy-resolving ocean models, Ocean Modell., 28, 4, 226-239, DOI:10.1016/j.ocemod.2009.02.007.[CrossRef]

  • Marshall J., Hill C., Perelman L., Adcroft A., 1997a, Hydrostatic, quasi-hydrostatic, and nonhydrostatic ocean modelling, J. Geophys. Res., 102, C3, DOI:10.1029/96JC02775102.[CrossRef]

  • Marshall J., Adcroft A., Hill C., Perelman L., Heisey C., 1997b, A finite-volume, incompressible Navier-Stokes model for studies ocean on parallel computers, J. Geophys. Res., 102, C3, DOI:10.1029/96JC02776.[CrossRef]

  • Maximenko N., Niiler P., Rio M.-H., Melnichenko O., Centurioni L., Chambers D., Zlotnicki V., Galperin B., 2009, Mean dynamic topography of the ocean derived from satellite and drifting buoy data using three different techniques, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 26, 1910-1919, DOI:10.1175/2009JTECHO672.1.[CrossRef]

  • Mayer-Gürr T., Rieser D., Höck E., Brockmann J.M., Schuh W.-D., Krasbutter I., Kusche J., Maier A., Krauss S., Hausleitner W., Baur O., Jäggi A., Meyer U., Prange L., Pail R., Fecher T., Gruber T., 2012, The new combined satellite only model GOCO03s. Abstract submitted to the International Symposium on Gravity, Geoid and Height Systems, Venice, Italy, 9-12 October 2012.

  • Menemenlis D., Fukumori I., Lee T., 2005, Using Green’s functions to calibrate an ocean general circulation model, Mon. Weather Rev., 133, 1224-1240, DOI:10.1175/MWR2912.1.[CrossRef]

  • Mohammed H.F., 2005, Realization and redefinition of the Egyptian vertical datum based on recent heterogeneous observations. Unpublished PhD thesis. Zagazig University.

  • Nicholls R.J., 2010, Impacts of and responses to sea-level rise. pp.17-51 (Chapter 2) in, Understanding sea-level rise and variability (eds. J.A. Church, P.L. Woodworth, T. Aarup and S. Wilson). London: Wiley-Blackwell.

  • Pail R., Goiginger H., Schuh W.-D., Höck E., Brockmann J. M., Fecher T., Gruber T., Mayer-Gürr T., Kusche J., Jäggi A., Rieser D., 2010, Combined satellite gravity field model GOCO01S derived from GOCE and GRACE, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L20314, DOI:10.1029/2010GL044906.[CrossRef]

  • Pail R., Bruinsma S., Migliaccio F., Förste C., Goiginger H., Schuh W.-D., Höck E., Reguzzoni M., Brockmann J.M., Abrikosov O., Veicherts M., Fecher T., Mayrhofer R., Krasbutter I., Sansò F., Tscherning C.C., 2011, First GOCE gravity field models derived by three different approaches, J. Geod., 85, 819-843, DOI:10.1007/s00190-011-0467-x.[CrossRef]

  • Pail R., 2013, Global gravity field models and their use in Earth System Research. Chapter to be published in, Earth Observation of Global Changes (EOGC) (eds. Krisp J.M., Meng L., Pail R., and Stilla U. ), Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

  • Pavlis N.K., Holmes S.A., Kenyon S.C., Factor J.K., 2012, The development and evaluation of the Earth Gravitational Model 2008 (EGM2008), J. Geophys. Res., 117, B4, DOI:10.1029/2011JB008916.[CrossRef]

  • Plag H-P., M. Pearlman, (eds.), 2009, Global Geodetic Observing System: Meeting the requirements of a global society on a changing planet in 2020. Berlin: Springer Geoscience. 332pp.

  • Rio M.H., Poulain P.-M., Pascual A., Mauri E., Larnicol G., Santoleri R., 2007, A Mean Dynamic Topography of the Mediterranean Sea computed from altimetric data, in-situ measurements and a general circulation model, J. Marine Syst., 65, 484-508, DOI:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2005.02.006.[CrossRef]

  • Rio M. H., Guinehut S., Larnicol G., 2011, New CNES-CLS09 global mean dynamic topography computed from the combination of GRACE data, altimetry, and in situ measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 116, C07018, DOI:10.1029/2010JC006505.[CrossRef]

  • Rossiter J.R., 1967, An analysis of annual sea level variations in European waters, Geophys. J. Roy. Astro. S., 12, 259-299, DOI:10.1111/j.1365-246X.1967.tb03121.x.[CrossRef]

  • Rummel R., 2013, Height unification using GOCE, J. Geod. Sci. 2, 4, 355-362.

  • Santamaria-Gomez A., Gravelle M., Collilieux X., Guichard M., Martin Miguez B., Tiphaneau P., Wöppelmann G., 2012, Mitigating the effects of vertical land motion in tide gauge records using a state-of-the-art GPS velocity field, Global Planet. Change, DOI:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2012.07.007.[CrossRef]

  • Smith D.M., Murphy J.M., 2007, An objective ocean temperature and salinity analysis using covariances from a global climate model, J. Geophys. Res., 112, C02022, DOI:10.1029/2005JC003172.[CrossRef]

  • Sturges W., 1974, Sea level slope along continental boundaries, J. Geophys. Res., 79, 825-830, DOI:10.1029/JC079i006p00825.[CrossRef]

  • Tapley B.D., Bettadpur S., Watkins M., Reigber C., 2004, The gravity recovery and climate experiment: Mission overview and early results, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L09607, DOI:10.1029/2004GL01992.[CrossRef]

  • Thompson K.R., 1980, An analysis of British monthly mean sea level, Geophys. J. Roy. Astro. S., 63, 57-73, DOI:10.1111/j.1365-246X.1980.tb02610.x.[CrossRef]

  • Tsimplis M.N., Woodworth P.L., 1994, The global distribution of the seasonal sea level cycle calculated from coastal tide gauge data, J. Geophys. Res., 99, C8, DOI:10.1029/94JC01115.[CrossRef]

  • Véronneau M., Duval R., Huang J., 2006, A gravimetric geoid model as a vertical datum in Canada, Geomatica, 60, 165-172.

  • Visser P.N.A.M., Rummel R., Balmino G., Sunkel H., Johannessen J., Aguirre M., Woodworth P.L., Le Provost C., Tscherning C.C., Sabadini R., 2002, The European Earth Explorer Mission GOCE: impact for the geosciences. pp.95-107 in, Ice Sheets, Sea Level and the Dynamic Earth. Geodynamics Series 29, American Geophysical Union (eds. J. Mitrovica and L.L.A. Vermeersen).

  • Webb D.J., Coward A.C., de Cuevas B.A., Gwilliam C.S., 1997, A multiprocessor ocean general circulation model using message passing, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 14, 175-182, DOI:10.1175/1520-0426(1997)014<0175:AMOGCM>2.0.CO;2.[CrossRef]

  • Woodworth P.L., Player R., 2003, The Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level: an update to the 21st century, J. Coastal Res., 19, 287-295.

  • Woodworth P.L., Aman A., Aarup T., 2007, Sea level monitoring in Africa, Afr. J. Marine Sci., 29, 3, 321-330, DOI:10.2989/AJMS.2007.29.3.2.332.[CrossRef]

  • Woodworth P.L., Horsburgh K.J., 2011, Surge models as providers of improved ”inverse barometer corrections” for coastal altimetry users. pp.177-189 in, Coastal Altimetry (eds. S. Vignudelli, A. Kostianoy, P. Cipollini and J. Benveniste). Springer Publishing. DOI:10.1007/978-3-642-12796-0_7.[CrossRef]

  • Woodworth P.L., 2011, A note on the nodal tide in sea level records, J. Coastal Res., 28, 316-323, DOI:10.2112/JCOASTRESD-11A-00023.1. [CrossRef]

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.