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Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism

Editor-in-Chief: Kiess, Wieland

Editorial Board Member: Darendeliler, Feyza / Gustafsson, Jan / Luo, Feihong / Mericq, Veronica / Lanes M. D., Roberto / Battelino, Tadej / Buyukgebiz, Atilla / Cassorla, Fernando / Chrousos, George P. / Cutfield, Wayne / Fideleff, Hugo L. / Hershkovitz, Eli / LaFranchi, Stephen H. / Mohn, Angelika / Root, Allen W. / Rosenfeld, Ron G. / Wabitsch, Martin / Werther, George / Zadik, Zvi

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Clinical Presentation and Autoimmune Characteristics of Very Young Children at the Onset of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Bizzarri Carla1 / Benevento Danila1 / Ciampalini Paolo1 / Patera Ippolita Patrizia1 / Schiaffini Riccardo1 / Migliaccio Antonella1 / Ravà Lucilla2 / Cappa Marco1

1Unit of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Piazza S. Onofrio, Rome, Italy

2Epidemiology Unit, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Piazza S. Onofrio, Rome, Italy

Corresponding author: Dr. Carla Bizzarri,

Citation Information: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism. Volume 23, Issue 11, Pages 1151–1157, ISSN (Online) 2191-0251, ISSN (Print) 0334-018X, DOI: 10.1515/jpem.2010.180, December 2010

Publication History

Published Online:


The aim of our study was to identify factors that are related to a more aggressive β-cell destruction in children at presentation of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D).

We analyzed age, HbA1c, pH, bicarbonate, IAA, IA2, GADA, C peptide of 290 consecutive patients with T1D at onset. Seventy-three (25.2%) were younger than 4 years; 217 (74.8%) were aged 4-18 years. Younger patients had lower C peptide, pH and bicarbonate than older ones. Age at T1D onset was negatively related to IAA titers (r: -0.3404, p < 0.001), positively related to IA2 titers (r: 0.1249, p: 0.03) and to C peptide (r: 0.42, p: < 0.001). Multivariable linear regression showed that C peptide was negatively related to HbA1c and positively related to age, pH at admission and IAA titers.

T1D in very young children is characterized by a more extensive β-cell destruction, and younger age at onset is related to a more severe decompensation.

KEY WORDS: type 1 diabetes; children; beta cell; ketoacidosis; C peptide

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