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Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism

Editor-in-Chief: Kiess, Wieland

Editorial Board Member: Darendeliler, Feyza / Gustafsson, Jan / Luo, Feihong / Mericq, Veronica / Lanes M. D., Roberto / Battelino, Tadej / Buyukgebiz, Atilla / Cassorla, Fernando / Chrousos, George P. / Cutfield, Wayne / Fideleff, Hugo L. / Hershkovitz, Eli / LaFranchi, Stephen H. / Mohn, Angelika / Root, Allen W. / Rosenfeld, Ron G. / Wabitsch, Martin / Werther, George / Zadik, Zvi

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Influence of developmental and hormonal factors on bone health in adolescent females: a cross-sectional study and review of the literature

1 / Maria Karantza1 / Maria Papaefthymiou1 / Helen Soultanakis2 / Athanasios Papaefstathiou3 / Polixeni Nikolaidou4 / Chryssa Bakoula1 / George Chrousos1

1Centre for Health and Prevention in Adolescence, 1st Department of Pediatrics, Athens University Medical School, Agia Sophia Children’s Hospital, Athens, Greece

2Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece

3Unit of Metabolic Bone Diseases, Bone Densitometry Laboratory, 2nd Department of Internal Medicine-Propadeutic, Athens University Medical School, Attikon University Hospital, Athens, Greece

43rd Department of Pediatrics, Athens University Medical School, Attikon University Hospital, Athens, Greece

Corresponding author: Aikaterini Sarra, Centre for Health and Prevention in Adolescence, 1st Department of Pediatrics, Athens University Medical School, Agia Sophia Children’s Hospital, Kyprou 11 Agia Paraskevi, 15343 Athens, Greece, Phone: +306977715381, Fax: +302106013372

Citation Information: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism. Volume 26, Issue 3-4, Pages 239–246, ISSN (Online) 2191-0251, ISSN (Print) 0334-018X, DOI: 10.1515/jpem-2012-0355, January 2013

Publication History

Received:
2012-08-25
Accepted:
2012-11-12
Published Online:
2013-01-17

Abstract

Objective: To study bone density in healthy Greek girls going through puberty and determine the influence of developmental and hormonal factors.

Design: Sixty healthy female adolescents (average age of 13.88±2.53 years) were included. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the hip by DXA (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry). Pubertal stage was determined by Tanner’s criteria. Creatinine, calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin and 25-OH-vitamin D levels were measured in blood samples. The European physical fitness test battery (EUROFIT) was used to assess the parameters of physical fitness that are related to strength.

Results: Adolescent girls had a mean (±SD) BMD value of 0.947±0.144 g/cm2 at the total hip (total hip BMD). Tanner’s stage for pubic hair and body mass index (BMI) constituted significant, positive and independent predicting factors for bone density of total hip. Deficiency of 25OH-vitamin D was a negative predicting factor of bone density. Blood levels of calcium and phosphorus, the hours that adolescents devoted to sports, and handgrip strength, were independent predicting factors of bone density at the hip.

Conclusions: Bone density and consequently bone health is determined by factors that can be modified in order to achieve optimal bone growth and reduce the risk of fractures and osteoporosis in later life.

Keywords: 25-OH-vitamin D; bone density; puberty; strength

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