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Journal of Perinatal Medicine

Official Journal of the World Association of Perinatal Medicine

Editor-in-Chief: Dudenhausen, Joachim W.

Editorial Board Member: / Bancalari, Eduardo / Greenough, Anne / Genc, Mehmet R. / Chervenak, Frank A. / Chappelle, Joseph / Bergmann, Renate L. / Bernardes, J.F. / Bevilacqua, G. / Blickstein, Isaac / Cabero Roura, Luis / Carbonell-Estrany, Xavier / Carrera, Jose M. / D`Addario, Vincenzo / D'Alton, MD, Mary E. / Dimitrou, G. / Grunebaum, Amos / Hentschel, Roland / Köpcke, W. / Kawabata, Ichiro / Keirse, M.J.M.C. / Kurjak M.D., Asim / Lee, MD MPH MSCR, Ben H. / Levene, Malcolm / Lockwood, Charles J. / Marsal, Karel / Makatsariya, Alexander / Nishida, Hiroshi / Papp, Zoltán / Pejaver, Ranjan Kumar / Pooh, Ritsuko K. / Romero, Roberto / Saugstad, Ola D. / Schenker, Joseph G. / Sen, Cihat / Seri, Istvan / Vetter, Klaus / Winn, Hung N. / Young, Bruce K. / Zimmermann, Roland

6 Issues per year

IMPACT FACTOR 2013: 1.425

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR): 0.782
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP): 0.928



Prenatal diagnosis: what does four-dimensional ultrasound add?

A. Kurjak / N. Vecek / T. Hafner / T. Bozek / B. Funduk-Kurjak / B. Ujevic

Citation Information: Journal of Perinatal Medicine. Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 57–62, ISSN (Print) 0300-5577, DOI: 10.1515/JPM.2002.008, June 2005

Publication History

Published Online:


Introduction: The key benefit of 4D ultrasound lies in providing real-time 3D images of embryonic or fetal movements, previously limited by technological advancement.

Aim: To classify types of first trimester embryonic and fetal movements in normal pregnancies as seen by 4D sonography.

Results: Three types of movements can be visualized in the first trimester: gross body between seven and eight weeks, limb movements after ten weeks and complex limb movements after 11 weeks of gestation.

Discussion: An alteration from the given pattern of motoric development should be considered as an indication for further investigation.

Conclusion: 4D ultrasound enables visualization of more details of the dynamics of small anatomical structures. Therefore, body and limb movements can be visualized a week earlier than with 2D.

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