Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation

Journal of Perinatal Medicine

Official Journal of the World Association of Perinatal Medicine

Editor-in-Chief: Dudenhausen, Joachim W.

Editorial Board Member: / Bancalari, Eduardo / Greenough, Anne / Genc, Mehmet R. / Chervenak, Frank A. / Chappelle, Joseph / Bergmann, Renate L. / Bernardes, J.F. / Bevilacqua, G. / Blickstein, Isaac / Cabero Roura, Luis / Carbonell-Estrany, Xavier / Carrera, Jose M. / D`Addario, Vincenzo / D'Alton, MD, Mary E. / Dimitrou, G. / Grunebaum, Amos / Hentschel, Roland / Köpcke, W. / Kawabata, Ichiro / Keirse, M.J.M.C. / Kurjak M.D., Asim / Lee, Ben H. / Levene, Malcolm / Lockwood, Charles J. / Marsal, Karel / Makatsariya, Alexander / Nishida, Hiroshi / Ogata, Edward / Papp, Zoltán / Pejaver, Ranjan Kumar / Pooh, Ritsuko K. / Romero, Roberto / Saugstad, Ola D. / Schenker, Joseph G. / Sen, Cihat / Seri, Istvan / Vetter, Klaus / Winn, Hung N. / Young, Bruce K. / Zimmermann, Roland

7 Issues per year

IMPACT FACTOR 2014: 1.358
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.597

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2014: 0.731
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2014: 0.687
Impact per Publication (IPP) 2014: 1.483



Waterbirth: water temperature and bathing time mother knows best!

V. Geissbuehler / J. Eberhard / A. Lebrecht

Citation Information: Journal of Perinatal Medicine. Volume 30, Issue 5, Pages 371–378, ISSN (Print) 0300-5577, DOI: 10.1515/JPM.2002.058, June 2005

Publication History

Published Online:


Objectives: The Frauenfeld Clinic for Obstetrics and Gynecology introduced waterbirths in 1991. This work examines whether guidelines for water temperature and bathing are actually necessary.

Methods: This 8-year prospective clinical study follows 10,775 births in a regional women's hospital (non-selected population). Neonatal and maternal body temperature and morbidity parameters were compared between land and waterbirths. A smaller study (n = 47) selectively focused on body temperature differences as influenced by bathing time and water temperature in waterbirths as compared to land births.

Results: Neonatal and maternal birth and perinatal parameters, and body temperatures do not differ between water and land births, except at birth, when waterbearing temperatures were 36.9 °C vs. 36.3 °C on land. Neonatal rectal temperatures did not differ significantly between the two groups. Water temperature increased from the beginning of the bath (35.2 °C) to 35.7 °C, and fell at the end of the bath to 32.9 °C. Water temperature range: 23 °C to 38.9 °C. Bathing duration: 28 min. to 364 min.

Conclusions: Waterbirths pose no thermal risk. The parturient, with her “inborn code of body temperature regulation,” regulates water temperature and bathing duration to ensure body temperatures of mother and child remain within the physiological range. Cumbersome guidelines for water temperature and bathing duration are therefore superfluous.

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Robyn M. Maude and Maralyn J. Foureur
Women and Birth, 2007, Volume 20, Number 1, Page 17
Rosanna A. Zanetti-Daellenbach, Sibil Tschudin, Xiao Yan Zhong, Wolfgang Holzgreve, Olav Lapaire, and Irene Hösli
European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 2007, Volume 134, Number 1, Page 37
Verena Geissbuehler
Journal of Perinatal Medicine, 2004, Volume 32, Number 6

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.