Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Official Journal of the World Association of Perinatal Medicine
Editor-in-Chief: Dudenhausen, Joachim W.
Editorial Board Member: / Bancalari, Eduardo / Greenough, Anne / Genc, Mehmet R. / Chervenak, Frank A. / Chappelle, Joseph / Bergmann, Renate L. / Bernardes, J.F. / Bevilacqua, G. / Blickstein, Isaac / Cabero Roura, Luis / Carbonell-Estrany, Xavier / Carrera, Jose M. / D`Addario, Vincenzo / D'Alton, MD, Mary E. / Dimitrou, G. / Grunebaum, Amos / Hentschel, Roland / Köpcke, W. / Kawabata, Ichiro / Keirse, M.J.M.C. / Kurjak M.D., Asim / Lee, Ben H. / Levene, Malcolm / Lockwood, Charles J. / Marsal, Karel / Makatsariya, Alexander / Nishida, Hiroshi / Ogata, Edward / Papp, Zoltán / Pejaver, Ranjan Kumar / Pooh, Ritsuko K. / Romero, Roberto / Saugstad, Ola D. / Schenker, Joseph G. / Sen, Cihat / Seri, Istvan / Vetter, Klaus / Winn, Hung N. / Young, Bruce K. / Zimmermann, Roland
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The role of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in the neutrophilia observed in the fetal inflammatory response syndrome
1Perinatology Research Branch, NICHD/NIH/DHHS, Bethesda, MD and Detroit, MI, USA
2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wayne State University School of Medicine/Hutzel Women’s Hospital, Detroit, MI, USA
3William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI, USA
4Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
5Biosurety Division USARIID, Frederick, MD, USA
6Ben Gurion University, Soroka Medical Center, Beer Sheva, Israel
Citation Information: Journal of Perinatal Medicine. Volume 39, Issue 6, Pages 653–666, ISSN (Online) 1619-3997, ISSN (Print) 0300-5577, DOI: 10.1515/jpm.2011.072, September 2011
- Published Online:
Objectives: Fetal neutrophilia is present in two-thirds of cases with the fetal inflammatory response syndrome (FIRS). The mechanisms responsible for this finding have not been elucidated. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is the primary physiologic regulator of neutrophil production and plays a key role in the rapid generation and release of neutrophils in stressful conditions (i.e., infection). The objective of this study was to determine: 1) whether FIRS was associated with changes in fetal plasma G-CSF concentrations; and 2) if fetal plasma G-CSF concentrations correlated with fetal neutrophil counts, chorioamnionitis, neonatal morbidity/mortality and cordocentesis-to-delivery interval.
Study design: Percutaneous umbilical cord blood sampling was performed in a population of patients with preterm labor (n=107). A fetal plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentration >11 pg/mL was used to define FIRS. Cord blood G-CSF was measured by a sensitive and specific immunoassay. An absolute neutrophil count was determined and corrected for gestational age. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, survival analysis and Cox proportional hazard model were employed.
Results: 1) G-CSF was detected in all fetal blood samples; 2) fetuses with FIRS had a higher median fetal plasma G-CSF concentration than those without FIRS (P<0.001); 3) a fetal plasma G-CSF concentration ≥134 pg/mL (derived from an ROC curve) was associated with a shorter cordocentesis-to-delivery interval, a higher frequency of chorioamnionitis (clinical and histological), intra-amniotic infection, and composite neonatal morbidity/mortality than a fetal plasma concentration below this cut-off; and 4) a fetal plasma G-CSF concentration ≥134 pg/mL was associated with a shorter cordocentesis-to-delivery interval (hazard ratio 3.2; 95% confidence interval 1.8–5.8) after adjusting for confounders.
Conclusions: 1) G-CSF concentrations are higher in the peripheral blood of fetuses with FIRS than in fetuses without FIRS; and 2) a subset of fetuses with FIRS with elevated fetal plasma G-CSF concentrations are associated with neutrophilia, a shorter procedure-to-delivery interval, chorio-amnionitis and increased perinatal morbidity and mortality.
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