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Journal of Plant Protection Research

The Journal of Polish Society of Plant Protection, Committee of Plant Protection; Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Plant Protection – National Research Institute

4 Issues per year

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Open Access

Protective Treatments against Soilborne Pathogens in Citrus Orchards

Mahfouz Abd-Elgawad1 / Nehal El-Mougy1 / Nadia El-Gamal1 / Mokhtar Abdel-Kader1 / Moawad Mohamed1

Department of Plant Pathology, National Research Center, El-Behoos St., 12622, Giza, Egypt1

This content is open access.

Citation Information: Journal of Plant Protection Research. Volume 50, Issue 4, Pages 477–484, ISSN (Online) 1899-007X, ISSN (Print) 1427-4345, DOI: 10.2478/v10045-010-0079-0, December 2010

Publication History

Published Online:
2010-12-20

Protective Treatments against Soilborne Pathogens in Citrus Orchards

The efficacy of applying biocontrol agents, chemical fungicide and nematicide as protective treatments against the soilborne parasites, Fusarium spp. (Fusaria) and citrus nematode Tylenchulus semipenetrans Cobb was evaluated. The experiment took place under field conditions in a citrus orchard cultivated with 16-year-old sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.) osbech cv. Valencia trees grafted on sour orange (C. aurantium L.) rootstock during the growing season November 2006/October 2007. This orchard is located at Bader district, Behera governorate, Egypt. The populations of soil fauna and flora under trees canopy were examined just before treatment, and 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after the treatment application. A visual inspection for the appearance of symptoms related to Fusarium or nematode infection on treated and untreated citrus trees was carried out periodically every two weeks throughout the experimental period. The populations of Fusarium spp. were gradually decreased throughout the experimental period. However, the antagonistic bacterial isolates showed drastic effect for reducing the Fusaria population from 38.5% before treatments to a range of 1.2-4.0% after one month of such a bacterial application followed by the Kocide (fungicide) treatment which recorded 6.6%. Meanwhile, Fusaria populations of 18.4 and 16.3% were recorded as Fusaria population in treatments of the nematicide Carbofuran and entompathogenic nematode, respectively. Also, the population density of T. semipenetrans juveniles drastically decreased soon after all the treatment applications. Then after the nematode population build up during the growing season followed a natural distribution decline shape starting from the third month of application up to the ninth month, then it decreased. The citrus nematode increased steadily in the untreated check till September 2007 then its population level decreased. Treatments of Bacillus subtilis - B (20 ml) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (20 ml) gave the highest citrus yield followed by B. subtilis A (10 ml); B. subtilis B (10 ml) and Kocide (fungicide). Moreover, citrus trees treated with B. subtilis A (10 ml); P. fluorescens (10 ml) and Carbofuran (nematicide) had a higher yield production than trees treated with entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis egyptii (Abd-Elgawad and Ameen 2005). Yet, visual monitoring for disease incidence throughout the citrus orchard during the whole period of the study revealed no disease symptoms of any fusaria or nematode infection in treated trees. Untreated trees had a 1.9 and 3.1% fusaria and nematode infection, respectively. The importance of the present work, therefore, is based on the proposed bioagents as protective applications that are able to inhibit the citrus pathogens and prevent them from causing citrus damage.

Ochrona Sadów Cytrusowych Przed Patogenami Prrzenoszącymi Się Przez Glebę

W pracy przedstawiono ocenę skuteczności czynników biologicznego zwalczania oraz preparatów chemicznych: fungicydu Kocide i nematocydu Carbofuran przeciwko sprawcom chorób drzew cytrusowych - patogenicznym grzybom z rodzaju Fusarium spp. oraz pasożytniczemu nicieniowi Tylenchulus semipenetrans. Doświadczenia przeprowadzono w sezonie wegetacyjnym od listopada 2006 do października 2007, w warunkach polowych w 16-letnim sadzie cytrusowym ze słodką pomarańczą (Citrus sinensis L.) odmiany Valencia zaszczepionej na podkładce kwaśnej pomarańczy (C. aurantium). Badania populacji mikroorganizmów wykonano bezpośrednio przed zabiegiem oraz po upływie: 1, 3, 6, 9 i 12 miesięcy od przeprowadzonego zabiegu. Obserwacje symptomów porażenia fuzariozą i infekcji wywołanej przez pasożytniczego nicienia obiektów doświadczalnych, wykonywano systematycznie w dwutygodniowych odstępach, przez cały okres trwania doświadczenia. Nasilenie populacji grzybów Fusarium spp. stopniowo malało w trakcie prowadzenia doświadczenia. Wykorzystanie antagonistycznych izolatów bakterii w dużym stopniu ograniczyło populację patogenów z 38,5% przed wykonanym zabiegiem do 1,2-4,0% po zabiegu, po upływie 1 miesiąca w zależności od kombinacji doświadczenia, a w przypadku fungicydu Kocide wielkość procentowa wynosiła 6,6%. Natomiast nasilenie patogenów Fusarium spp. po zastosowaniu nematocydu Carbofuran oraz entomopatogenicznego nicienia Heterohabditis egyptii wynosiło, odpowiednio 18,4 i 16,3%. Po wykonanym zabiegu we wszystkich kombinacjach nasilenie populacji pasożytniczego nicienia T. semipenetrans uległo znacznemu obniżeniu. W ciągu całego sezonu wegetacyjnego wystąpił wyraźny wzrost liczebności populacji nicienia pomiędzy 3 a 9 miesiącem po zabiegu oraz spadek liczebności nicieni po 12 miesiącach zarówno w obiektach kontrolnych, jak też traktowanych. Nasilenie populacji T. semipenetrans - drzew cytrusowych, wyraźnie wzrosło do miesiąca września, a następnie zaobserwowano spadek jego liczebności. Najwyższe plony owoców cytrusowych uzyskano po zastosowaniu antagonistycznych izolatów bakterii: Bacillus subtilis B (20 ml) i Pseudomonas fluorescens (20 ml), a w dalszej kolejności: B. subtilis A (10 ml), B. subtilis B (10 ml) oraz fungicydu Kocide. Ponadto stwierdzono, że w wyniku zastosowania izolatów B. subtilis A (10 ml), P. fluorescens (10 ml) i nematocydu Carbofuran uzyskano wyższe plony owoców w porównaniu do obiektu z entomopatogenicznym nicieniem H. egyptii. Nie stwierdzono występowania symptomów infekcji grzybami Fusarium spp. oraz nicieniem T. semipenetrans w obiektach chronionych, podczas gdy w kontroli ich wielkości procentowe wynosiły, odpowiednio 1,9 i 3,1%. Wyniki prezentowanych badań wskazują na możliwość wykorzystania czynników biologicznego zwalczania w celu inhibowania rozwoju patogenów drzew cytrusowych, a tym samym zapobieganiu strat spowodowanych występowaniem chorób.

Keywords: Bacillus subtilis; biological control; Citrus sinensis; Heterorhabditis egyptii; fungicide; Pseudomonas fluorescens; nematicide

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