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Open Medicine

formerly Central European Journal of Medicine


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Surmounting antimicrobial resistance in the Millennium Superbug: Staphylococcus aureus

1Natural Products & Drug Discovery, Department of Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences, Thapar University, Patiala, Punjab, 147004, India

© 2009 Versita Warsaw. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0)

Citation Information: Open Medicine. Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 12–29, ISSN (Online) 2391-5463, DOI: 10.2478/s11536-009-0079-5, January 2010

Publication History

Published Online:
2010-01-29

Abstract

Staphylococcus aureus is the third most dreaded pathogen posing a severe threat due to its refractory behavior against the current armamentarium of antimicrobial drugs. This is attributed to the evolution of an array of resistance mechanisms responsible for morbidity and mortality globally. Local and international travel has resulted in the movement of drug resistant S. aureus clones from hospitals into communities and further into different geographical areas where they have been responsible for epidemic outbreaks. Thus, there is a dire necessity to refrain further cross movement of these multidrug resistant clones across the globe. The plausible alternative to prevent this situation is by thorough implementation of regulatory aspects of sanitation, formulary usage and development of new therapeutic interventions. Various strategies like exploring novel antibacterial targets, high throughput screening of microbes, combinatorial and synthetic chemistry, combinatorial biosynthesis and vaccine development are being extensively sought to overcome multidrug resistant chronic Staphylococcal infections. The majority of the antibacterial drugs are of microbial origin and are prone to being resisted. Anti-staphylococcal plant natural products that may provide a new alternative to overcome the refractory S.aureus under clinical settings have grossly been unnoticed. The present communication highlights the new chemical entities and therapeutic modalities that are entering the pharmaceutical market or are in the late stages of clinical evaluation to overcome multidrug resistant Staphylococcal infections. The review also explores the possibility of immunity and enzyme-based interventions as new therapeutic modalities and highlights the regulatory concerns on the prescription, usage and formulary development in the developed and developing world to keep the new chemical entities and therapeutic modalities viable to overcome antimicrobial resistance in S. aureus.

Keywords: S. aureus; MRSA; Vaccines; MDR; Rational drug design; Combinatorial biosynthesis; Enzymibiotics

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