Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation

Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences

The Journal of ID Design 2012/DOOEL Skopje, Republic of Macedonia on behalf of the Macedonian Donor Registry (MKDR), Skopje, Republic of Macedonia

4 Issues per year

Open Access
VolumeIssuePage

Open Access

Circulating oxidized low density lipoprotein and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations in metabolic syndrome Egyptian women before and after specific nutritional therapy

1 / Salwa M. El Shebini2 / Magda S. Mohamed3 / Nihad H. A. El-Arabi4 / Salwa T. Tapozada5 / Laila M. Hanna6

1National Research Center - Food Science and Nutrition, Cairo, Egypt

2National Research Center - Food Science and Nutrition, Cairo, Egypt

3National Research Center - Food Science and Nutrition, Cairo, Egypt

4National Research Center - Food Science and Nutrition, Cairo, Egypt

5National Research Center - Food Science and Nutrition, Cairo, Egypt

6National Research Center - Food Science and Nutrition, Cairo, Egypt

This content is open access.

Citation Information: Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences. Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 169–176, ISSN (Online) 1857-5773, ISSN (Print) 1857-5749, DOI: 10.3889/mjms.1857-5773.2012.0230, October 2012

Publication History

Published Online:
2012-10-21

Abstract

Aim: To investigate the relation between the metabolic syndrome (MetS), and oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), and to evaluate a dietary therapy composed of a balanced hypocaloric regimen plus a supplement prepared from whole wheat and tigernut flour (Cyperus Esculentus).

Material and Methods: Forty two obese Egyptian female volunteers (their mean age was 47.76± 0.90) were given a low caloric balanced diet (900-1000 kcal) for 4 weeks, and then the supplement was used to replace Baladi bread during the next four weeks. The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria.

Results: The prevalence rate of MetS was found to be 76.2%.The metabolic syndrome was significantly associated with higher levels of total cholesterol (T.cholesterol), LDL-C, ox-LDL and non HDL-C. Significant and sustained reduction in the levels of fasting blood glucose and HbA1c, normalization of lipid profile, and decrease in the levels of ox-LDL were observed after the end of the two periods of the dietary therapy.

Conclusion: Metabolic syndrome is associated with higher levels of circulating ox-LDL and non-HDLC. The use of the dietary therapy composed of balanced hypocaloric regimen plus a supplement rich in antioxidants and anti-inflammatory components, reduced obesity and the risky biochemical markers of the MetS.

Key words: : metabolic syndrome; obesity; oxidized LDL; non-HDL-C; tigernut

  • 1. Kahn R, Buse J, Ferrannini E, Stern M. The metabolic syndrome: time for a critical appraisal: joint statement from the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2005; 28(9): 2289-2304. [CrossRef]

  • 2. Stern MP, Williams K, Hunt KJL. Impact of diabetes/metabolic syndrome in patients with established cardiovascular disease. Atheroscler Suppl. 2005; 6(2): 3-6. [PubMed] [CrossRef]

  • 3. Esposito K, Ciotola M, Giugliano D. Oxidative stress in metabolic syndrome. J Endocrinol Invest. 2006; 29: 791-795. [PubMed]

  • 4. Cipolletta C, Ryan KE, Hanna EV, Trimble ER. Activation of peripheral blood CD14+ monocytes occurs in diabetes. Diabetes. 2005;54(9):2779-2786.

  • 5. Holvoet P. Relation between metabolic syndrome, oxidative stress and inflammation and cardiovascular disease. Verh K Acad Geneeskd Belg. 2008; [PubMed]

  • 70(3):193-219.

  • 6. Furukawa S, Fujita T, Shimabukuro M. Increased oxidative stress in obesity and its impact on metabolic syndrome. J Clin Invest. 2004; 114(12): 1752-1761. [PubMed]

  • 7. Third report of National cholesterol Education program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluations, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) Final Report. Circulation. 2002; 106: 3143-3221.

  • 8. Wagner AM,Perez A, Zapico E, Ordonezuanos J. Non-H DL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B in the dyslipidemic classification of type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care. 2003; 26: 2048-2051. [CrossRef]

  • 9. Pischon T, Girman GJ, Sacks FM, Rifai N, Stampfer NJ, Rimm EB. Non -high density lipoprotein cholesterol and Apolipoprotein B in the prediction of coronary heart disease in men. Circulation. 2005;112:3375-3383. [PubMed] [CrossRef]

  • 10. Patel C, Ghanim H, RanishankarS, Sia CL, Viswanathan P, Mohantym P, Dandona P. Prolonged reactive oxygen species generation and Nuclear Factor- KB activation after a high fat, high carbohydrate meal in the obese. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:4476-4479. [CrossRef] [Web of Science]

  • 11. Fernandez-Sanchez A, Madrigal- Santillan E, Bautista M, Esquivel- Soto J, Morales- Gonzalez A, Esquirel Soto J, Morales- Ganzalez A, Equivel- Chirino C, Durante-Montiel I, Sanchez - Riverra G, Valadez-Vega C, Morales-Gonzalez- JA. Inflammation oxidative stress, and obesity. Int J Mol Sci. 2011; 12: 3117-3132. [CrossRef] [Web of Science]

  • 12. Flight I, Clifton P. Cereal grains and legumes in the prevention of coronary heart disease and stroke: a review of the literature. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006;60:1145-1159. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

  • 13. Kris-Etherton PM, Hu FB, Ros E, Sabate J. The role of tree nuts and peanuts in the prevention of coronary heart disease: multiple potential mechanism. J Nutr. 2008; 138:51746-1751.

  • 14. David AB. Tigernut . A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition.

  • 2005. Encyclopedia.com:http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/ 1039-tigernut.html. Accessed May, 2010.

  • 15. A.O.A.C. (Association of official analytical Chemists) Official Methods of Analysis of official Analytical Chemists., 2 Vols 15th ed Washington DC. 1990; 70, 668, 931, 933 and 937.

  • 16. A.O.A.C. (Official Method of Analysis of the Association of Official Agriculture Chemists) 16th ed Volume II, Section

  • 45.4.07, Methods, 985.29.1997.

  • 17. Soylak M, Tuzen M, Narin I, Sari H. Comparison of microwave, dry and wet digestion procedures for determination of trace metal contents in spice samples produced in Turkey. J Food Drug Anal. 2004;12(3): 254-258.

  • 18. A.O.A.C. Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists, 17th ed, Published by A.O.A.C.,

  • 2000.

  • 19. Adekanmi OK, Oluwatooyin OF, Yemisi OA, Yemisi AA. Influence of processing techniques on the nutrient and antinutrient of tiger nut (Cyperus Esculentus L.). W J of Dairy & Food Science. 2009;4(2):88-93.

  • 20. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) consensus worldwide definition of the metabolic syndrome. http;// www.idf.org/webdata/docs/IDF.Metabolic syndrome definition. PDF (accessed March 5, 2010).

  • 21. Jelliffe DB. The assessment of the nutritional status of the community. World Health Organization, Geneva Monograph. 1966; 35:63-69.

  • 22. Center for Disease Control and prevention (CDC) about BMI for adults, 2006.

  • 23. Abraham EC, Huff’ TA, Cope ND. Determination of the glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1) with a new micro-column procedure. Diabetes. 1978;27:931-937. [CrossRef]

  • 24. Barham D, Trinder P. An improved color reagent for determination of blood glucose by oxidase system. Analyst. 1972; 97:142-145. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

  • 25. Allain CC, Poon LS, Chan CS, Richmond W, Fu PC Enzymatic determination of total serum cholesterol. Clin Chemo. 1974;20:470- 475.

  • 26. Wornick DF, Albers JJ. A comprehensive evaluation of the heparin-manganese precipitation procedure for estimating high density lipoprotein cholesterol. J Lipid Res.1978;19:65-76.

  • 27. Seidel J, Klos S, Ziegenhorn T. AACC Meeting Abstract 34. Clin Chem. 1993;39:1127.

  • 28. Friedewald WI, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS. Estimation of the concentration of low density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem.1972; 18:499-502. [PubMed]

  • 29. Corsi MM, Dogliotti G, Pedroni F, Ermetici F, Malavazos A, Ambrosi B. ADMA: A possible role in obese patients. Poster P173 of the 6th World Congress on Hyperhomocysteinemia, Saabrucken, Germany, June 5-9, erschienen in CCLM 45(5). 2007.

  • 30. Temple RC, Clark PM, Hales CN. Measurement of insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes: problems and pitfalls. Diabetic Medicine. 1992;9:503-512. [Web of Science] [CrossRef]

  • 31. Mattews DR, Hosker JP, Rudenski AS, Naylor BA, Treacher DF, Turner RC. Homeostasis model assessment, insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentration in man. Diabetologia.1985;28:412-419. [CrossRef]

  • 32. Gupta A, Gupta V. Metabolic syndrome: what are the risks for humans? Bio Science Trends. 2010;4:204-212.

  • 33. Weinbrenner T, Schroder H, Escurriol V, Fito M, Elosua R, Vila J, Marruqat J, Covas MI. Circulating oxidized LDL is associated with increased waist circumference independent of body mass index in men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83: 30-35. [PubMed]

  • 34. Wajchenberg BL. Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue: their relation to the metabolic syndrome. Endocr Rev. 2000;21:697-738. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

  • 35. Durnjak L, Durnjak M. The metabolic syndrome-an ongoing story. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009;60(Suppl 7):19-24.

  • 36. Ros E. Nuts and novel biochemical markers of Cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89:1649S- 16565S.

  • 37. Biomhoff R, Carlsen MH, Anderson LF, Jacobs DR Jr. Health benefit of nuts: potential role of antioxidant. Br J Nutr. Suppl. 2006; 2:S 52- 60. [CrossRef]

  • 38. D’Archivio M, Scazzocchio B, Filesic, Vari R, Maggiorella MT, Semicola L, Santangelo C, Giovannini C, Masella R. Oxidised LDL up-regulate CD36 Expression by the Nrf2 pathway in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes . FEBS Lett. 2008; 582: 2291-2298. [Web of Science]

  • 39. Peters AL. Clinical prevalence of non-HDL- cholesterol in patients with diabetes. Clin Diabetes. 2008; 26: 3-7. [CrossRef]

  • 40. Mukuddem-Peterson J, Oosthuizen W,Jerling JCJ. Asystemic review of the effects of nuts on blood lipid profiles in human. J Nutr. 2005; 135: 2082-2089.

  • 41. Zhang HY, Hanna MN, Yusuf A, Nan L. Yellow nut-sedge (Cyperus Esculentus) tuber oil as a fuel. Industrial Crop and product. 1990; 5:177-187.

  • 42. Harris KA, Kriss-Etherton PM. Effect of whole grains on coronary heart disease risk. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2010;12:368-376. [PubMed] [CrossRef]

  • 43.Eteshola E, Oraedu ACI. Fatty acid composition of tigernut tubers (Cyperus Esculentus), baobab seeds (Adasonia digitata L.) and their mixture. J Am Oil Chem Soc. 1996;73:255-257. [CrossRef]

  • 44. Fito M, Dela Torre R, Covas MI. Olive oil and oxidative stress. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2007;51:1215-1224. [PubMed]

  • 45. Ros E, Cabre-Vila JJ, Salas-Salvado J. Effects of one serving of mixed nuts on serum lipids, insulin resistance and inflammatory markers in patients with metabolic syndrome. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2011;21:126-135. [PubMed]

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.