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Pure and Applied Chemistry

The Scientific Journal of IUPAC

Ed. by Burrows, Hugh / Weir, Ron / Stohner, Jürgen

12 Issues per year


IMPACT FACTOR 2013: 3.112
Rank 41 out of 148 in category Multidisciplinary Chemistry in the 2013 Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Report/Science Edition

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Li-air batteries: A classic example of limitations owing to solubilities

Ian Kowalczk1 / Jeffery Read2 / Mark Salomon1

1MaxPower, Inc., 141 Christopher Lane, Harleysville, PA 19438, USA

2U.S. Army Research Laboratory, AMSRL-SE-DC, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, MD 20783-1197, USA

Citation Information: Pure and Applied Chemistry. Volume 79, Issue 5, Pages 851–860, ISSN (Online) 1365-3075, ISSN (Print) 0033-4545, DOI: 10.1351/pac200779050851, January 2009

Publication History

Published Online:
2009-01-01

A review is presented of the present state-of-the-art of Li-air cells and batteries. We examine the properties of this unique system in terms of the effects of solubilities of reactants and products in both nonaqueous (aprotic) and aqueous electrolyte solutions. Definite trends are observed, such as increasing cell-specific energy and capacity as both the oxygen solubility increases and viscosity decreases in organic solvents, but quantitative analyses are limited owing to the complex relations between solubility, solution viscosity, oxygen diffusion, and electrolytic conductivity. Adding to this complex relation is the dependence of the nature of the carbon-based air cathode (surface area and pore volume) upon practical specific capacities, which can be realized with Li-air cells that far exceed the specific energies and capacities of all present commercial metal-air and Li-ion cells and batteries.

Keywords: Bunsen coefficient; Li-air batteries; nonaqueous solvents; organic solvents; solubility

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