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Pure and Applied Chemistry

The Scientific Journal of IUPAC

Ed. by Burrows, Hugh / Weir, Ron / Stohner, Jürgen

12 Issues per year

IMPACT FACTOR 2013: 3.112
Rank 41 out of 148 in category Multidisciplinary Chemistry in the 2013 Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Report/Science Edition

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Greener and expeditious synthesis of bioactive heterocycles using microwave irradiation

Vivek Polshettiwar1 / Rajender S. Varma1

1Sustainable Technology Division, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 W. Martin Luther King Dr., MS 443, Cincinnati, OH 45268, USA

Citation Information: Pure and Applied Chemistry. Volume 80, Issue 4, Pages 777–790, ISSN (Online) 1365-3075, ISSN (Print) 0033-4545, DOI: 10.1351/pac200880040777, January 2009

Publication History

Published Online:

The utilization of green chemistry techniques is dramatically reducing chemical waste and reaction times as has recently been proven in several organic syntheses and chemical transformations. To illustrate these advantages in the synthesis of bioactive heterocycles, we have studied various environmentally benign protocols that involve greener alternatives. Microwave (MW) irradiation of neat reactants catalyzed by the surfaces of recyclable mineral supports, such as alumina, silica, clay, or their "doped" versions, enables the rapid one-pot assembly of heterocyclic compounds, such as flavonoids, related benzopyrans, and quinolone derivatives. The strategy to assemble oxygen and nitrogen heterocycles from in situ generated reactive intermediates via enamines or using hypervalent iodine reagents is described. Examples of multicomponent reactions that can be adapted for rapid parallel synthesis include solventless synthesis of dihydropyrimidine-2(1H)-ones (Biginelli reaction), imidazo[1,2-a]annulated pyridines, pyrazines, and pyrimidines (Ugi reaction). The relative advantages of greener pathways, which use MW irradiation and eco-friendly aqueous reaction medium, for the synthesis of various heterocycles, such as N-aryl azacycloalkanes, isoindoles, 1,3-dioxane, 1,3,4-oxadiazole, 1,3,4-thiadiazole, pyrazole, and diazepines, are also summarized.

Keywords: aqueous medium; green chemistry; heterocycles; microwave irradiation; solvent-free reactions; supported reagents

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