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Proceedings of the Latvian Academy of Sciences. Section B. Natural, Exact, and Applied Sciences.

The Journal of Latvian Academy of Sciences


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Pancreatic Islet Transplantation and Regeneration for Diabetes mellitus Treatment

Dmitry Babarykin1 / Vizma Nikolajeva1 / Daina Eze1 / Diana Amerika1

Medical Consulting Service Ltd., A. Saharova iela 16, Riga, LV-1021, LATVIA1

Faculty of Biology, University of Latvia, Kronvalda bulv. 4, Riga, LV-1586, LATVIA2

Centre of Transplantology, Pauls Stradiņš Clinical University Hospital, Pilsoņu 13, Riga, LV-1002, LATVIA3

This content is open access.

Citation Information: Proceedings of the Latvian Academy of Sciences. Section B. Natural, Exact, and Applied Sciences.. Volume 62, Issue 6, Pages 199–208, ISSN (Print) 1407-009X, DOI: 10.2478/v10046-009-0005-x, April 2009

Publication History

Published Online:
2009-04-02

Pancreatic Islet Transplantation and Regeneration for Diabetes mellitus Treatment

The incidence of diabetes mellitus due to different causes (heredity, unhealthy food, sedentary life style, etc.) is increasing both in Latvia and worldwide every year. In almost all cases insulin therapy must be administered. However, the latest modern technologies promote the development of new and alternative treatments of diabetes mellitus. One of them, the procedure of islet transplantation is comparatively simple and relatively non-invasive in contrast to whole pancreas transplantation. It is considered as a perspective strategy in the treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes, when the insulin-producing beta cells have been destroyed and blood glucose level is above the normal range (hyperglycaemia). Successful outcome of clinical islet transplantation has been shown in several islet transplantation centres in Europe and elsewhere, particularly in the last seven years, using corticoid-free immunosuppression regimen. Islets are isolated by a collagenase-based digestion of donor pancreas with a "Ricordi" chamber, followed by a purification step in a Ficoll-based continuous density gradient. This review discusses the islet transplantation procedure and deals with the methods of islet isolation. Importance of islet preparations and engraftment quality, as well as clinical outcome and its indications also are described. The present status of islet regeneration including beta cells neogenesis and regeneration therapy strategies also are presented. The experience of Latvian scientists in islet transplantation procedure is briefly described.

Aizkuņga Dziedzera Saliņu Transplantācija UN Regenerācija Cukura Diabēta Ārstēšanai

Saslimstība ar cukura diabētu dažādu iemeslu dēļ (iedzimtība, neveselīgs uzturs, mazkustīgs dzīves veids u.c.) pēdējos gados palielinās gan Latvijā, gan visā pasaulē. Gandrīz vienmēr šiem pacientiem ir jāuzsāk insulīna terapija. Tajā pašā laikā jaunākās modernās tehnologijas ir sekmējušas jaunu, alternatīvu metožu ieviešanu arī cukura diabēta ārstēšanā. Viena no tām - Langerhansa saliņu transplantēšana, kura ir salīdzinoši vienkārša un relatīvi maz invazīva, salīdzinājumā ar visa aizkuņga dziedzera transplantēšanu. Šī metode varētu būt īpaši piemērota 1. tipa diabēta pacientu ārstēšanā, kad insulīnu ražojošās beta šūnas ir gājušas bojā un glikozes līmenis asinīs ir palielināts (hiperglikēmija). Klīniska saliņu transplantēšana, īpaši pēdējos gados, imūnsupresijai neizmantojot kortikosteroīdus, ir bijusi sekmīga vairākos saliņu transplantēšanas centros gan Eiropā, gan arī citur pasaulē. Saliņu izolēšanas pamatā ir donora aizkuņga dziedzera enzimātiska sadalīšana ar kolagenāzi "Rikordi" kamerā, kam seko attīrīšanas procedūra Fikola gradienta centrifugācijā. Rakstā apkopota informācija par saliņu transplantēšanas un izolēšanas problēmām un sasniegumiem, kā arī klīniskajiem rezultātiem. Apskatīta arī beta šūnu regenerācija, ieskaitot to neogenēzi. Sniegts īss pārskats par Latvijas zinātnieku pieredzi saliņu transplantēšanā.

Keywords: pancreas; islets of Langerhans; diabetes mellitus; transplantation; regeneration

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