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The Journal of South East European University

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Air Pollution in Kolkata: An Analysis of Current Status and Interrelation between Different Factors

Jana Spiroska1 / Md. Asif Rahman1 / Saptarshi Pal1

1Post Graduate , University of Manchester, UK & Central European University, Hungary

This content is open access.

Citation Information: SEEU Review. Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 182–214, ISSN (Print) 1409-7001, DOI: 10.2478/v10306-012-0012-7, February 2013

Publication History

Published Online:
2013-02-01

Abstract

Kolkata, one of the fastest growing metropolises in India has been suffering from air pollution for many decades. The rapid urbanization coupled with ineffective government control has been fuelling this problem. The study aims to portray the current air pollution situation in this megacity as it analyses the present level of different air pollutants like Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM), NO2 and SO2. The result of the analysis shows the critical level of air pollutants specially the SPM and NO2 in different parts of city. By zoning the city into residential, commercial and industrial areas, the result shows the difference between the levels of pollution in each area. The second part of the study explored the seasonal variation of air pollution and it has been found all of the pollutants reach its highest concentration during winter. Extending the study, the paper also tries to establish the relationship between the air pollutants and metrological factors by using the Spearman’s Rank Correlation. The results show an inverse relation between the concentration of pollutants and the metrological factors such as precipitation, wind, temperature and relative humidity. Finally, a calculation of the change in pollution level during the two festive seasons is carried out and an increase in SPM concentration has been found during the celebrations of Kali Puja and Diwali.

Abstrakt

Kalkuta, një nga metropolet me rritje më të shpejtë në Indi, vuan nga ndotja e ajrit për shumë dekada. Urbanizimi i shpejtë, bashkë me kontrollin joefektiv të qeverisë, ka nxitur këtë problem. Studimi ka për qëllim të paraqesë situatën aktuale të ndotjes së ajrit në këtë megaqytet duke analizuar nivelin e tanishëm të ndotësve të ndryshëm të ajrit, si: grimcat (Suspended Particulate Matter-SPM), NO2 dhe SO2. Rezultatet e analizës tregojnë nivelin kritik të ndotësve të ajrit, posaçërisht SPM dhe NO2 në pjesë të ndryshme të qytetit. Me ndarjen e qytetit në zona: të banimit, ato komerciale dhe industriale, rezultatet tregojnë dallimin në mes të niveleve të ndotjes në çdo zonë. Pjesa e dytë e studimit, hulumton variacionin sezonal të ndotjes së ajrit. Këtu është konstatuar se përqendrimi i të gjithë ndotësve është gjatë dimrit, kur, si rrjedhojë, është më i lartë. Me shtrirjen e studimit, ky punim, gjithashtu, përpiqet të krijojë marrëdhënie ndërmjet ndotësve të ajrit dhe faktorëve meteorologjikë duke përdorur Korrelacionin e ranguar të Spearman-it. Në bazë të rezultateve del se ka një lidhje të anasjelltë midis përqendrimit të ndotësve dhe faktorëve meteorologjikë siç janë: era, reshjet, temperatura dhe lagështia relative. Së fundi, është kryer një llogaritje e ndryshimit të nivelit të ndotjes në dy sezonet festive dhe një rritje e përqendrimin të SPM. Me këtë rast është konstatuar se gjatë festimeve të Kali Puja dhe Diwali përqendrimi është më i madh.

Апстракт

Калкута, една од најбрзо растечките метрополи во Индија веќе неколку децении има проблеми со загадувањето на воздухот. Брзата урбанизација заедно со неефикасната контрола на владата дополнително го разгорува овој проблем. Студијата има за цел да го прикаже на тековната ситуација со загадувањето на воздухот во овој мега град преку анализирање на сегашното ниво на различни загадувачки материи во воздухот како суспендирани честички, NO2 и SO2. Резултатот на анализата покажува критично ниво на загадувачите на воздухот посебно за суспендираните честички и NO2 во различни делови на градот. Преку одредување зони на градот во станбени, комерцијални и индустриски области, резултатот ја покажува разликата помеѓу нивоата на загадување во секоја област. Во вториот дел од студијата се истражува сезонска варијација на загадувањето на воздухот која доведе до резултат кој укажува дека сите загадувачи ја достигнуваат својата најголема концентрација во текот на зимата. Понатаму преку студијата, исто така, се воспоставува врска помеѓу загадувачите на воздухот и метеоролошките фактори со користење на Спирмановиот коефициент на ранг корелација. Резултатите покажуваат инверзен однос помеѓу концентрацијата на загадувачите и метеоролошките фактори како што се врнежи, ветер, температура и релативна влажност. На крајот се пресметува промената на нивото на загаденост на текот на двата празника при што се воочува зголемување на концентрацијата на суспендирани честички за време на прославата на Кали пуја и Дивали.

Keywords : Air Pollution; Seasonal variation; Metrological factors; megacity

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