Simptoms of anxiety, depression, anger and sexual concern and the role of some demographic characteristic among slovenian youth: a cross sectional study : Slovenian Journal of Public Health

www.degruyter.com uses cookies, tags, and tracking settings to store information that help give you the very best browsing experience.
To understand more about cookies, tags, and tracking, see our Privacy Statement
I accept all cookies for the De Gruyter Online site

Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation

Slovenian Journal of Public Health

The Journal of National Institute of Public Health


IMPACT FACTOR 2014: 0.417

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2014: 0.192
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2014: 0.259
Impact per Publication (IPP) 2014: 0.374

Open Access
VolumeIssuePage

Simptoms of anxiety, depression, anger and sexual concern and the role of some demographic characteristic among slovenian youth: a cross sectional study

Maša Bizjak1

Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Primorska, Polje 42, 6310 Izola, Slovenia1

This content is open access.

Citation Information: Slovenian Journal of Public Health. Volume 51, Issue 2, Pages 105–111, ISSN (Online) 1854-2476, ISSN (Print) 0351-0026, DOI: 10.2478/v10152-012-0012-1, April 2012

Publication History

Published Online:
2012-04-03

Simptoms of anxiety, depression, anger and sexual concern and the role of some demographic characteristic among slovenian youth: a cross sectional study

Background: There is some evidence that a more elevated level of anxiety and depression is associated with adolescent timing and that depression and anxiety have overlapping symptoms and are conceptually interrelated.

Methods: This cross-sectional study investigated the clinical importance and comorbidity rates of some psychological symptoms. The aim was to explore the presence and intensity of the symptoms of anxiety, depression, anger and sexual concern in Slovenian adolescents. The second aim was to determine the relationship between the sociodemographic characteristics of adolescents and the presence of these symptoms. Two hundred and three adolescents between 15 and 20 years of age completed a questionnaire measuring specific symptoms.

Results and conclusions: The results of the current study indicate that depressive and anxiety symptoms were found not to differ by gender, age and socioeconomic status. Girls and boys showed similar profiles of correlations for depressive and anxiety symptoms. High level of depressive symptoms, such a feelings of sadness, unhappiness, and loneliness, were associated with increased symptoms of anxiety among boys and girls and both expressed more sexual concerns as well. Anger, angry thoughts, feelings and behaviour were strongly linked to preoccupation with sexual thoughts or feelings for both boys and girls. The findings extend the current knowledge in this area. Identifying and assessing depression and other symptoms are essential to ensuring access to appropriate treatment.

Znaki Depresivnosti, Anksioznosti, Jezavosti in Spolnih Preokupacij Ter Vloga Nekaterih Demografskih Karakteristik Med Mladimi v Sloveniji: Presečna Študija

Namen: Nekateri dokazi kažejo, da se povečana stopnja anksioznosti in depresivnosti povezuje z obdobjem adolescence ter da znaki sovpadajo in se povezujejo med seboj.

Metode: Ta presečna študija raziskuje klinično pomembnost in stopnjo komorbidnosti nekaterih psiholoških znakov, to je: depresije, anksioznosti, jeze in skrbi glede spolnosti in povezave med temi znaki med slovensko mladino. Cilj študije je bil določiti tudi vlogo specifičnih demografskih značilnosti, ki so mogoče povezane s povečano stopnjo psiholoških znakov. Dvesto trije adolescenti, stari od 15 do 20 let, so izpolnili klinično lestvico, ki meri specifične znake.

Rezultati in zaključki: Rezultati študije kažejo, da pojavljanje depresivnih in anksioznih znakov ni odvisno od spola, starosti ali od socialno-ekonomskega statusa. Dekleta in fantje kažejo podoben profil povezav med depresivnimi in anksioznimi znaki. Visoka stopnja depresivnosti, kot so na primer občutki žalosti, nesreče in osamljenosti, so bili povezani s povečano stopnjo anksioznosti pri fantih in dekletih. Oboji izkazujejo tudi več skrbi glede spolnosti. Jeza, jezne misli, občutki jeze in vedenje so bili močno povezani s prevzetostjo z mislimi in občutki glede spolnosti pri fantih in dekletih. Rezultati širijo dozdajšnje znanje na tem področju. Identifikacija in ustrezno obravnavanje depresivnosti in drugih z njo povezanih znakov je nujno za zagotavljanje pristopov primerne obravnave ali zdravljenja.

Keywords: adolescents; health; depression; anxiety; anger; gender; age; psychology

Keywords: adolescenti; zdravje; depresija; anksioznost; jeza; spol; starost; psihologija

  • Cicchetti D, Toth SL. The development of depression in children and adolescents. Am Psychol 1998; 53: 221-241. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

  • Kovacs M, Devlin B. Internalizing disorders in childhood. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1998; 39: 47-63. [CrossRef]

  • Nolen-Hoeksema S, Girgus J. The emergence of gender differences in depression during adolescence. Psychol Bull 1994; 115: 424-443. [CrossRef]

  • Petersen AC, Compas BE, Brooks-Gunn J, Stemmler M, Ey S, Grant KE. Depression in adolescence. Am Psychol 1993; 48: 155-168. [PubMed] [CrossRef]

  • Stavrakaki C, Gaudet M. Epidemiology of affective and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Psychiatr Clin North Am 1989; 12: 791-802. [PubMed]

  • Elliott DM. Traumatic events: prevalence and delayed recall in the general population. J Consult Clin Psychol 1997; 65: 811-820. [CrossRef]

  • Giaconia RM, Reinherz HZ, Silverman AB, Pakiz BA, Frost AK, Cohen E. Traumas and posttraumatic stress disorder in a community population of older adolescents. J Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1995; 34: 1369-1380. [CrossRef]

  • Camarena P, Sarigiani P, Petersen AC. Gender specific pathways to intimacy in early adolescence. J Youth Adolesc 1990; 19: 19-32. [CrossRef]

  • Franko DL, Striegel-Moore RH, Bean J, Tamer R, Kraemer HC, Dohm F, Crawford PB, Schreiber G, Daniels SR. Psychosocial and health consequences of adolescent depression in black and white young adult women. Health Psychol 2005; 24: 586-593. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

  • Essau CA. Comorbidity of anxiety disorders in adolescents. Depress Anxiety 2003; 18: 1-6. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

  • Wittchen HU, Fehm L. Epidemiology and natural course of social fears and social phobia. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2003; 108: 417-418.

  • Huerta R, Brizuela-Gamino OL. Interaction of pubertal status, mood, and self-esteem in adolescent girls. J Reprod Med 2002; 47: 217-225. [PubMed]

  • Leen-Feldner EW, Reardon LE, McKee LG, Feldner MT, Babson KA, Zvolensky M J. The interactive role of anxiety sensitivity and pubertal status in predicting anxious responding to bodily sensations among adolescents. J Abn Child Psychol 2006; 34: 797-810. [CrossRef]

  • McCabe MP, Ricciardelli LA, Banfield S. Body image, strategies to change muscles and weight, and puberty: do they impact on positive and negative affect among adolescent boys and girls? Eat Behav 2001; 2, 129-149. [PubMed]

  • Angold A, Costello EJ, Erkanli A. Comorbidity. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1999; 40: 57-87. [CrossRef]

  • Costello EJ, Mustillo S, Erkanli A, Keeler G, Angold A. Prevalence and development of psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. Arc Gen Psychiatry 2003; 60: 837-844. [CrossRef]

  • Rohde P, Lewinsohn PM, Seeley JR. Comorbidity of unipolar depression: comorbidity with other mental disorders in adolescents and adults. J Abnorm Psychol 1991; 100: 214-222. [PubMed] [CrossRef]

  • Bardone AM, Moffitt TE, Caspi A, Dickson N, Stanton WR, Silva PA. Adult physical health outcomes of adolescent girls with conduct disorder, depression, and anxiety. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psych 1998; 37: 594-601. [CrossRef]

  • Newman MG, Clayton L, Zuellig A, Cashman L, Arnow B, Dea R. et al. The relationship of childhood sexual abuse and depression with somatic symptoms and medical utilization. Psychol Med 2000; 30: 1063-1077. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

  • Schraedley PK, Gotlib IH, Hayward C. Gender differences in correlates of depressive symptoms in adolescents. J Adolesc Health 1999; 25: 98-108. [CrossRef]

  • Shrier LA, Harris SK, Beardslee WR. Temporal associations between depressive symptoms and self-reported sexually transmitted disease among adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2002; 156: 599-606. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

  • Chartier GM, Lassen MK. Adolescent depression: Children's Depression Inventory norms, suicidal ideation, and (weak) gender effects. Adolescence 1994; 29: 859-864.

  • Blumenthal H, Leen-Feldner E, Trainor C, Babson K. Interactive roles of pubertal timing and peer relations in predicting social anxiety symptoms among youth. J Adol Health 2009; 44: 401-403. [CrossRef]

  • Overholser JC, Adams DM, Lehnert KL, Brinkman DC. Self-esteem deficits and suicidal tendencies among adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psych 1995; 34: 919-928. [CrossRef]

  • Zhang J, Jin S. Determinants of suicide ideation: a comparison of Chinese and American college students. Adolescence 1996; 31: 451-467. [PubMed]

  • Twenge J, Nolen-Hoeksema S. Age, gender, race, socioeconomic status, and birth cohort differences in the Children's Depression Inventory: a meta-analysis. J Abnorm Psychol 2002; 111: 578-588. [CrossRef]

  • Wade R J, Cairney J, Pevalin D. Emergence of gender differences in depression during adolescence: national panel results from three countries. J Am Acad of Child Adolesc Psych 2002; 41: 190-198. [CrossRef]

  • Ge X, Conger RD, Elder GH. The relation between puberty and psychological distress in adolescent boys. J Res Adolesc 2001; 11: 49-70. [CrossRef]

  • Wasserman G, McReynolds L, Katz L, Carpenter J. Gender differences in psychiatric disorders at juvenile probation intake. Am J Public 2005; 95: 131-137.

  • Lucht M, Schaub RT, Meyer C, Hapke U, Rumpf HJ, Bartels T. et al. Gender differences in unipolar depression: a general population survey of adults between age 18 to 64 of German nationality. J Affec Disor 2003; 77: 203-211. [CrossRef]

  • Piccinelli M, Wilkinson G. Gender differences in depression. Br J Psych 2000; 177: 486-492.

  • Weissman M, Bland R, Canino G, Faravelli C, Greenwald S, Hwu H. et al. Cross-national epidemiology of major depression and bipolar disorder. JAMA 1996; 276: 293-299.

  • Anderson J, Williams S, McGee R, Silva P. DSM-III disorders in adolescent children: prevalence in a large sample from the general population. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1987; 44: 69-76. [CrossRef]

  • Cohen P, Cohen J, Kasen S, Velez C, Hartmark C, Johnson J. et al. An epidemiological study of disorders in late childhood and adolescence, I: Age- and gender-specific prevalence. J Child Psychol Psych 1993; 34: 851-867. [CrossRef]

  • Rutter M. The developmental psychopathology of depression: issues and perspectives. In: Rutter M, Izard C, Read P, editors. Depression in young people. New York: Guilford Press, 1986.

  • Hankin BL, Mermelstein R, Roesch L. Sex differences in adolescent depression: stress exposure and reactivity models. Child Dev 2007; 78: 279-295. [PubMed] [CrossRef]

  • Dolenc P. Telesna samopodoba in samospoštovanje osnovnošolskih otrok. Pedagoška obzorja 2008; 23: 53-61.

  • Briere J, Žemva B, Boben D. Trauma symptom check for children: Slovenian version. Ljubljana: Center za psihodiagnotična sredstva, 2000.

  • Ohan JL, Myers K, Collett BR. Ten-year review of rating scales, IV: Scales assessing trauma and its effects. J Am Acad Child Psy 2002; 41: 1401-1422. [CrossRef]

  • Briere J. Trauma symptom checklist for children: professional manual. Florida: Psychological Assessment Resources, 1996.

  • Hankin BL, Abramson LY. Development of gender differences in depression: an elaborated cognitive vulnerability-transactional stress theory. Psychol Bull 2001; 127: 773-796. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

  • Hankin, BL, Abramson LY. Development of gender differences in depression: description and possible explanations. Ann Med 1999; 31: 372-379. [PubMed] [CrossRef]

  • Glick I. Treating depression. San Francisco: Jossey Bass, 1995.

  • Hammen C. Mood disorders (unipolar depression). In: Herson M, Turner S, editors. Adult psychopathology and diagnosis. 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1999: 170-207.

  • Zahn-Wexler C. Social problem-solving in disruptive preschool children: reactions to hypothetical situations of conflict and distress. Merrill Palmer Q 1994; 40: 98-119.

  • Swaffer T, Epps K. The psychometric assessment of anger in male and female adolescents resident at a secure youth treatment centre. J Adolesc 1999; 22: 419-422.

  • Ostrov E, Offer D, Howard KI. Gender differences in adolescent symptomatology: a normative study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psych 1989; 28: 394-398. [CrossRef]

  • Blazer DG, Kessler RC, McGonagle KA, Swartz MS. The prevalence and distribution of major depression in a national community sample: the national comorbidity survey. Am J Psych 1994; 151: 979-986.

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.