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Alternaria Black Spot of Crucifers: Symptoms, Importance of Disease, and Perspectives of Resistance Breeding

Marcin Nowicki1 / Marzena Nowakowska1 / Anna Niezgoda1 / Elżbieta Kozik1

Research Institute of Horticulture, Konstytucji 3 Maja 1/3, 96-100 Skierniewice, Poland1

This content is open access.
(CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

Citation Information: Vegetable Crops Research Bulletin. Volume 76, Issue , Pages 5–19, ISSN (Online) 1898-7761, ISSN (Print) 1506-9427, DOI: 10.2478/v10032-012-0001-6, August 2012

Publication History:
Published Online:
2012-08-30

Alternaria Black Spot of Crucifers: Symptoms, Importance of Disease, and Perspectives of Resistance Breeding

Alternaria black spot of cruciferous vegetables, incited by different species of Alternaria, remains an increasing threat to Brassicaceae crops throughout the world, including Poland. Brassica plants are attacked by conidia of A. brassicae (Berk.) Sacc., A. brassicicola (Schw.) Wiltsh., A. raphani Groves & Skolko, and A. alternata (Fr.) Kreissler. The pathogens have a wide spectrum of hosts, such as head cabbage, Chinese cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, and other crucifers including cultivated and wild grown plants. Alternaria pathogens usually cause damping-off of seedlings, spotting of leaves of cabbages, blackleg of heads of cabbages, and spotting of cauliflower curds and broccoli florets. In oilseed rape, A. brassicae is the dominant invasive species, while in the cruciferous vegetables, both species, A. brassicae, and A. brassicicola are encountered. Infected seeds with spores on the seed coat or mycelium under the seed coat are the main means of distribution for these pathogens. The fungus can overwinter on susceptible weeds or crop debris and on seed plants, as well as on stecklings.

Methods for disease prevention and control are based on combining agricultural management practices with chemical control. Using disease-free seeds or seeds treated with fungicides can greatly reduce disease incidence. After appearance of the first symptoms of disease, stringent fungicide spray program is an effective way to reduce losses. Many authors seem to agree, that the most economically feasible method of disease control is the development of resistant Brassicaceae crops varieties, as transgenic approach proved unsuccessful. Due to our increasing understanding of pathogen-host plant interactions, identification of resistance sources, and assessment of the resistance trait inheritance mode, breeding programs of Brassica crops for Alternaria resistance can be enhanced. This is of particular importance since recent years experience dynamic development of ecological and integrated plant production with an emphasis on plant biotic stress resistance. Highly resistant genetic resources have not been reported in Brassica cultivated species, although some varieties differ in their resistance/susceptibility level.

Strong cross-incompatibility, polygenic background of the resistance (additive and dominant gene interactions), as well as the differences in ploidy between the Brassica species of interest, render the transfer of Alternaria resistance from the wild species into the cultivated forms difficult. Additionally, it is often connected with employment of in vitro hybridization techniques, including somatic hybridization, embryo and ovary rescue, or protoplast fusion.

Alternarioza Roślin Kapustowatych: Objawy, Szkodliwość i Perspektywy Hodowli Odmian Odpornych

Alternarioza kapustowatych (syn. czerń krzyżowych, czarna plamistość roślin krzyżowych) powoduje duże straty gospodarcze w wielu krajach, w tym również w Polsce. Sprawcami choroby są różne gatunki grzybów z rodzaju Alternaria, najczę-ściej: A. brassicae (Berk.) Sacc., A. brassicicola (Schw.) Wiltsh., A. raphani Groves i Skolko oraz A. alternata (Fr.) Kreissler. Roślinami żywicielskim są kapusty i inne rośliny uprawne oraz dziko rosnące z rodziny krzyżowych. Szkodliwość czerni krzyżowych w uprawie kapusty głowiastej i pekińskiej polega na obniżeniu wysokości i jako-ści plonu. Grzyby z rodzaju Alternaria wywołują również zgorzel siewek, zgorzel podstawy główek kapusty, brązowienie róż kalafiora oraz brokułu. Najczęściej porażane organy wegetatywne roślin kapustowatych są infekowane przez A. brassicicola i A. brassicae, natomiast w uprawie nasiennej roślin oleistych w obrębie rodzaju Brassica dominującym sprawcą alternariozy jest A. brassicae. Pierwotnym źródłem choroby są głównie zakażone nasiona, ale także zimotrwałe rośliny z rodziny krzyżowych, resztki porażonych roślin, a na plantacjach nasiennych również materiał wysadkowy.

Metody zapobiegania i zwalczania alternariozy na plantacjach polegają na łączeniu zabiegów agrotechnicznych z ochroną chemiczną. Podstawową metodą zapobiegania chorobie jest produkcja zdrowych nasion, które otrzymuje się, stosując systematyczne opryskiwanie plantacji nasiennych fungicydami. W pierwszym roku uprawy zwalczanie ogranicza się do przedsiewnego zaprawiania nasion, a w czasie wegetacji, w okresach wzmożonego zagrożenia chorobą, znaczne obniżenie porażenia uzyskuje się dzięki regularnym opryskom środkami grzybobójczymi. Według wielu autorów, najbardziej ekonomicznym rozwiązaniem byłoby uzyskanie odpornych odmian warzyw kapustowatych. Pozwoliłoby to na zmniejszenie zużycia pestycydów, co ma szczególne znaczenie w uprawach integrowanych i ekologicznych. Pomimo identyfikacji źródeł odporności wśród roślin z rodziny krzyżowych, przeniesienie tej cechy do uprawnych gatunków kapustowatych jak dotąd nie powiodło się.

Silne bariery niezgodności krzyżowej, poligeniczne uwarunkowanie odporności (addytywne i dominujące współdziałanie genów) oraz różnice w ploidalności pomiędzy poszczególnymi gatunkami rodziny krzyżowych sprawiają, że przeniesienie genów odporności z dzikich gatunków do form uprawnych jest bardzo trudne i wymaga wykorzystania technik hybrydyzacji in vitro (w tym: somatyczna hybrydyzacja, "embryo/ovary rescue", fuzja protoplastów). Jednak dzięki coraz lepszemu poznaniu wzajemnych relacji patogenroślina żywicielska, identyfikacji nowych źródeł odporności oraz określeniu mechanizmu dziedziczenia tej cechy, możliwy będzie postęp w hodowli roślin kapustowatych odpornych na alternariozę.

Keywords: Alternaria spp.; cruciferous plants; resistance; testing methods

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