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Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie

International journal of research in physical chemistry and chemical physics

Ed. by Rademann, Klaus

12 Issues per year

IMPACT FACTOR increased in 2014: 1.356

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2014: 0.421
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2014: 0.521
Impact per Publication (IPP) 2014: 1.140



Volume 0 (0)

Homogeneous Ice Nucleation in Water and Aqueous Solutions

Thomas Koop

Citation Information: Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie/International journal of research in physical chemistry and chemical physics. Volume 218, Issue 11/2004, Pages 1231–1258, ISSN (Print) 0942-9352, DOI: 10.1524/zpch.218.11.1231.50812, September 2009

Publication History

Published Online:


This review provides an introduction to ice nucleation processes in supercooled water and aqueous solutions. Concepts for experimental techniques suitable to study homogeneous ice nucleation are addressed, in particular differential scanning calorimetry of inverse emulsions. Ice nucleation data from aqueous solutions have been analyzed using two approaches, and the interrelations between those are examined. It is argued that the ice nucleation process is driven entirely by thermodynamic quantities and how this can be understood in the context of three proposed theories for supercooled liquid water. Ice nucleation data for pure water droplets surrounded by a gas have been compiled and evaluated; within experimental uncertainty neither a volume dependent nucleation process nor a surface dependent nucleation process is convincingly supported by the analysis. Finally, open questions in the area of supercooled aqueous solutions and ice nucleation are discussed.

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