History Writing and the Making of Mongolian Buddhism

and Karénina Kollmar-Paulenz

Abstract:

When in the late sixteenth century the third Dalai Lama travelled to the Mongolian regions, he was accompanied by Buddhist monks of different Tibetan schools, Gelugpa, Sakyapa, Kagyüpa and others. Many of them built monasteries and temples in Mongolia, funded by Mongolian nobles. Although Gelugpa Buddhism quickly became dominant in Mongolia, the other schools remained present and active in the country until today. From the start, however, most Mongolian historians described the spread and development of Buddhism in the Mongolian lands as the endeavor of just one school, the ‘glorious Gelugpa’, ignoring the plurality of the Tibetan-Buddhist schools in the Mongolian religious field. This paper aims to analyze how and to what aims Mongolian historians created a uniform Gelugpa Buddhism, which taxonomies they used and which narratives they employed to present Gelugpa Buddhism as the religion of the Mongolian peoples. Moreover, the paper explores which impact Mongolian historiography had (and has) on modern scholarship and its narrative of Mongolian religious history. I argue that modern scholarship helps to perpetuate the ‘master narrativeʼ of Mongolian Buddhist historiography, presenting Mongolian Buddhism as a ‘pureʼ, exclusive Gelugpa Buddhism.

  • Anonymous 1607. Erdeni tunumal neretü sudur. Xeroxcopy of the manuscript preserved in the library of the Academy of Social Sciences, Hohot (PRC).

  • Anonymous 1651 – 1662. Erten-ü mongɣol-un qad-un ündüsün-ü yeke sira tuɣuji orosiba. Ündüsüten-ü keblel-ün qoriy-a, 1983.

  • Anonymous 1980. Qad-un ündüsün quriyangɣui altan tobči. Kökeqota.

  • Atwood, Christopher P. 2004. ‘Validation by Holiness or Sovereignty: Religious Toleration as Political Theology in the Mongol World Empire of the Thirteenth Centuryʼ, The International History Review 26.2. 237 – 256.

  • Bawden, Charles R. 1955. The Mongol Chronicle Altan Tobči. Text, translation, and critical notes. Wiesbaden.

  • Bawden, Charles R. 1961. The Jebtsundamba Khutukhtus of Urga. Text, Translation and Notes. Wiesbaden.

  • Bawden, Charles R. 1989. The Modern History of the Mongols. London and New York.

  • Bawden, Charles R. 1991. ‘Mongolia and the Mongoliansʼ. In Mongolia Today, ed. Shirin Akiner. London. 9 – 31.

  • Bretfeld, Sven 2010. ‘Die Zähmung des Schneelandes: Die Verbreitung des Buddhismus als kulturelle Meistererzählung.ʼ In Geschichten und Geschichte. Historiographie und Hagiographie in der asiatischen Religionsgeschichte, ed. Peter Schalk et al., Uppsala. 183 – 218.

  • Byamba Erke Dayičing 1667. Pringlai (ed.): Byamba. Asaraγči neretü-yin teüke. Ulaanbaatar 1960.

  • Charleux, Isabelle 2002. ‘Padmasambhava’s Travel to the North: The Pilgrimage to the Monastery of the Caves and the Old Schools of Tibetan Buddhism in Mongoliaʼ, Central Asiatic Journal 46/2. 168 – 232.

  • Chiodo, Elisabetta 2000. The Mongolian Manuscripts on Burch Bark from Xarvuxyn Balgas in the Collection of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences. Part I. Wiesbaden.

  • Chiodo, Elisabetta 2009. The Mongolian Manuscripts on Burch Bark from Xarvuxyn Balgas in the Collection of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences. Part II. Wiesbaden.

  • Cleaves, Francis W. 1952. ‘The Sino-Mongolian Inscription of 1346ʼ, Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 15. 1 – 123.

  • Crossley, Pamela K. 1997. The Manchus. Blackwell.

  • Doerfer, Gerhard 1958. ‘Erdeni-yin Tobči. Mongolian Chronicle by Saɣang Sečen. With a critical introduction by the reverend Antoine Mostaert, C.I.C.M., and an Editor’s foreword by Francis Woodman Cleaves. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press 1956. 4 Bände᾽, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft 108/2. 449 – 451.

  • Dumas, Dominique 2005. ‘The Mongols and Buddhism in 1368 – 1578: Facts – Stereotypes – Prejudicesʼ, Ural-Altaische Jahrbücher, N.F. 19. 167 – 221.

  • Elverskog, Johan 2003. The Jewel Translucent Sūtra. Altan Khan and the Mongols in the Sixteenth Century. Leiden and Boston.

  • Elverskog, Johan 2006. Our Great Qing. The Mongols, Buddhism and the State in Late Imperial China. Honolulu.

  • Fludernik, Monika 1996. Towards a “Natural” Narratology. London.

  • Franke, Herbert 1981. ‘Tibetans in Yüan Chinaʼ. In China under Mongol Rule, ed. J.D. Langlois Jr. Princeton. 296 – 328.

  • Galdan 1859. Erdeni-yin erike kemekü teüke bolai. Ulaanbaatar 1960.

  • Goldstein, Melvyn C. 1989. A History of Modern Tibet, 1913 – 1951. The Demise of the Lamaist State. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London.

  • Gombojab 1725. Гangɣ-a-yin urusqal. Kökeqota 1981.

  • ‘Gos lo tsa ba gZhon nu dpal 1478. Deb ther sngon po. 2 vols. Chengdu 1984.

  • Guosi Dharma 1739. Altan kürdün mingɣan gegesütü bičig. Eine mongolische Chronik von Siregetü Guosi Dharma (1739). Hg. und mit Einleitung und Namensverzeichnis versehen von Walther Heissig. Kopenhagen 1958.

  • Haarh, Erik 1969. The Yar-luṅ Dynasty. A Study with Particular Regard to the Contribution by Myths and Legends to the History of Ancient Tibet and the Origin and Nature of its Kings. København.

  • Haenisch, Erich 1955. Eine Urga-Handschrift des mongolischen Geschichtswerks von Secen Sagang (alias Sanang Secen). Berlin.

  • Haenisch, Erich 1962. Manghol un niuca tobca’an. Geheime Geschichte der Mongolen (Yüan-chao pi-shi). Teil 1: Text. Wiesbaden.

  • Heissig, Walther 1976. Die mongolischen Handschriften-Reste aus Olon süme Innere Mongolei (16.–17. Jhdt.). Wiesbaden.

  • Humphrey, Caroline 2007. ‘Vital Force: The Story of Dugar Jaisang and Popular Views of Mongolian-Tibetan Relations from Mongolian Perspectives.ʼ In The Mongolia-Tibet Interface. Opening New Research Terrains in Inner Asia. PIATS 2003, ed. Uradyn E. Bulag and Hildegard Diemberger. Leiden and Boston. 159 – 173.

  • Humphrey, Caroline; Ujeed, Hurelbaatar 2013. A Monastery in Time. The Making of Mongolian Buddhism. Chicago and London.

  • Isibaldan 1835. Heissig, Walther (ed.). Erdeni-yin erike. Mongolische Chronik der lamaistischen Klosterbauten der Mongolei von Isibaldan (1835). Kopenhagen 1961.

  • Jimbadorji 1834 – 37. Bolor toli, “Spiegel aus Bergkristall”, von Jimbadorji (1834 – 37). Buch III: Geschichte der Mongolen, ed. Walther Heissig. Kopenhagen 1962.

  • Kämpfe, Hans Rainer 1976a. Ñi ma’i ‘od zer / Naran-u gerel. Die Biographie des 2. Pekinger lČaṅ skya-Qutuqtu Rol pa’i rdo rje (1717 – 1786). St. Augustin.

  • Kämpfe, Hans Rainer 1976b. ‘Die Biographie des 3. Pekinger Čaṅ skya-Qutuqtu Ye šes bstan pa’i rgyal mc’an (1787 – 1846) – Aus der Biographiensammlung Čindamani-yin erikes in Faksimile herausgegeben, 1. Folgeʼ, Zentralasiatische Studien 10. 225 – 285.

  • Kämpfe, Hans Rainer 1977. ‘Die Biographie des 3. Pekinger Čaṅ skya-Qutuqtu Ye šes bstan pa’i rgyal mc’an (1787 – 1846) – Aus der Biographiensammlung Čindamani-yin erikes in Faksimile herausgegeben, 2. Folgeʼ, Zentralasiatische Studien 11. 121 – 131, Textfaksimile 132 – 175.

  • Kämpfe, Hans Rainer 1979a. ‘Sayin qubitan-u süsüg-ün terge. Biographie des 1. rJe bcun dam pa-Qutuqtu Öndür gegen (1635 – 1723), verfasst von Nag gi dbaṅ po 1839, 1. Folgeʼ, Zentralasiatische Studien 13. 93 – 136.

  • Kämpfe, Hans Rainer 1979b. ‘Sayin qubitan-u süsüg-ün terge. Biographie des 1. rJe bcun dam pa-Qutuqtu Öndür gegen (1635 – 1723), verfasst von Nag gi dbaṅ po 1839, 2. Folgeʼ, Zentralasiatische Studien 15. 331 – 382.

  • Kämpfe, Hans Rainer 1983. Das Asaragči neretü-yin teüke des Byamba erke daičing alias Šamba jasaɣ. Eine mongolische Chronik des 17. Jahrhunderts. Wiesbaden.

  • Kapstein, Matthew T. 2000. The Tibetan Assimilation of Buddhism. Conversion, Contestation, and Memory. Oxford.

  • Kaschewsky, Rudolf 1986. ‘Die Religion der Mongolen.ʼ In Die Mongolen. Beiträge zu ihrer Geschichte und Kultur, ed. Michael Weiers. Darmstadt. 87 – 123.

  • Kas’yanenko, Zoya K. 1993. Katalog peterburgskogo rukopisnogo “Γanzhura”. Sostavlenie, vvedenie, transliteraciya i ukazateli. Moskva.

  • Kollmar-Paulenz, Karénina 2000. ‘New Data on the Life of the Jönggen Qatun, the Third Wife of Altan Qaɣan of the Tumed Mongolsʼ, Central Asiatic Journal 44/2. 190 – 204.

  • Kollmar-Paulenz, Karénina 2001. Erdeni tunumal neretü sudur. Die Biographie des Altan qaγan der Tümed-Mongolen. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der religionspolitischen Beziehungen zwischen der Mongolei und Tibet im ausgehenden 16. Jahrhundert. Wiesbaden.

  • Kollmar-Paulenz, Karénina; Alexeev, Kirill; Tsyrempilov, Nikolay; Badagarov, Jargal 2012a. ‘The Ganjur Colophons in Comparative Analysis: A Contribution to the Cultural History of the Mongols in the 17th – Early 18th Centuriesʼ, Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of Mongolists, Vol. III, Mongolia’s Economy and Politics. Ulaanbaatar. 234 – 238.

  • Kollmar-Paulenz, Karénina 2012b. ‘A Method that Helps Living Beings: How the Mongols Created “Shamanism”’, Mongolo-Tibetica Pragensia 12.5/2. 7 – 19.

  • Kollmar-Paulenz, Karénina 2013. ‘dGe lugs pa supremacy in 16th – 17th Century Mongolia Reconsideredʼ. In Strany i narody Vostoka, Vyp. XXXIV., ed. I. F. Popova, T.D. Skrynnikova, Moskva. 5 – 15.

  • Kradin, N.N.; Skrynnikova, T.D. 2006. Imperija Chinggis-qana. Moskva.

  • Lomi 1732 – 1735. Mongɣol borjigid oboɣ-un teüke von Lomi (1732). Meng-ku Shih-hsi-p’u. Hg. und mit Einleitungen versehen von Walther Heissig und Charles R. Bawden. Wiesbaden 1957.

  • Lubsandanjin 1655. Altan Tobči. A Brief History of the Mongols by bLo-bzan bstan-‘jin with A Critical Introduction by the Reverend A. Mostaert and an Editor’s Foreword by F.W. Cleaves. Cambridge, MA, 1952.

  • Meinert, Carmen 2011. ʻEinleitung.ʼ In Buddha in der Jurte. Buddhistische Kunst aus der Mongolei, ed. Carmen Meinert. München. Vol. 1. 6 – 33.

  • Middell, Matthias; Gibas, Monika; Hadler, Frank 2000. ‘Sinnstiftung und Systemlegitimation durch historisches Erzählen. Überlegungen zu Funktionsmechanismen von Repräsentationen des Vergangenenʼ, Comparativ 2. 7 – 35.

  • Morgan, David 2007. The Mongols. Malden, MA.

  • Mostaert, Antoine 1957. ‘Sur le culte de Saγang Sečen et de son bisaïeul Qutuγtai Sečen chez les Ordosʼ. Reprinted in Antoine Mostaert (1881 – 1971). C.I.C.M. Missionary and Scholar, ed. Klaus Sagaster. Leuven 1999. Vol. 2. 493 – 529.

  • Ngag dbang blo bzang rgya mtsho 1984. rJe btsun thams cad mkhyen pa bsod nams rgya mtsho’i rnam thar dngos grub rgya mtsho’i shing rta. In ‘Phags pa ‘jig rten dbang phyug gi rnam sprul rim byon gyi ‘khrungs rabs deb ther nor bu’i ‘phreng ba, vol. 2. 1 – 171. Dharamsala.

  • Ngag dbang blo bzang rgya mtsho 1985. Gangs can yul gyi sa la spyod pa’i mtho ris kyi rgyal blon gtso bor brjod pa’i deb ther/ rdzogs ldan gzhon nu’i dga’ ston dpyid kyi rgyal mo’i glu dbyangs zhes bya ba bzhugs so. Indian reprint, New Delhi.

  • Okada, Hidehiro 1967. ‘An Analysis of the Lament of Toɣon Temürʼ, Zentralasiatische Studien 1. 55 – 78.

  • Pegg, Carole 2001. Mongolian Music, Dance & Oral Narrative. Performing Diverse Identities. Seattle and London.

  • Petech, Luciano 1972. China and Tibet in the Early XVIIIth Century. History of the Establishment of Chinese Protectorate in Tibet. Leiden.

  • Prajñasagara 1739. Boɣda neyiči toyin dalai mañjusryi-yin domoɣ-i todorqai-a geyigülügči čindamani erike kemegdekü orosiba. Xylograph, Beijing.

  • Rachewiltz, Igor de 1996. The Mongolian Tanjur Version of the Bodhicaryāvatāra. Edited and transcribed, with a Word-Index and a Photo-Reproduction of the Original Text (1748). Wiesbaden.

  • Rachewiltz, Igor de 2004. The Secret History of the Mongols. A Mongolian Epic Chronicle of the Thirteenth Century. Translated with a Historical and Philological Commentary. 2 vols. Leiden and Boston.

  • Rasipungsuɣ 1774/75. Bolor Erike. Mongolian Chronicle by Rasipungsuɣ with a Critical Introduction by the Reverend Antoine Mostaert, C.I.C.M., Arlington, VA and an Editor’s Foreword by Francis Woodman Cleaves, Professor of Far Eastern Languages, Harvard University. 5 vols. Cambridge, MA, 1959.

  • Rossabi, Morris 1995. ‘Mongolia: From Chinggis Khan to Independence.ʼ In Mongolia. The Legacy of Chiniggis Khan, ed. Patricia Berger, Terese T. Bartholomew. San Francisco. 25 – 49.

  • Ruegg, David S. 1995. Ordre spirituel et ordre temporal dans la pensée bouddhique de l’Inde et du Tibet. Quatre conférences au Collège de France. Paris.

  • Rykin, Pavel 2004. ‘The Social Group and its Designation in Middle Mongolian: The Concepts irgen and oboqʼ, Forum for Anthropology and Culture I. 183 – 210.

  • Rüsen, Jörn 1998. ‘Einleitung: Für eine interkulturelle Kommunikation in der Geschichte. Die Herausforderungen des Ethnozentrismus in der Moderne und die Antwort der Kulturwissenschaften.ʼ In Die Vielfalt der Kulturen. Erinnerung, Geschichte, Identität 4, ed. Jörn Rüsen, Michael Gottlob, Achim Mittag, Frankfurt am Main. 12 – 36.

  • Rüsen, Jörn 2002. Geschichte im Kulturprozess. Köln.

  • Sagaster, Klaus 1967. Subud Erike. Ein Rosenkranz aus Perlen. Die Biographie des 1. Pekinger lČaṅ skya Khutukhtu Nag dbaṅ blo bzaṅ č’os ldan, verfasst von Nag dbaṅ č’os ldan alias Šes rab dar rgyas. Herausgegeben, übersetzt und kommentiert von Klaus Sagaster. Wiesbaden.

  • Sagaster, Klaus 1976. Die Weisse Geschichte. Eine mongolische Quelle zur Lehre von den beiden Ordnungen Religion und Staat in Tibet und der Mongolei. Herausgegeben, übersetzt und kommentiert von Klaus Sagaster. Wiesbaden.

  • Sagaster, Klaus 1989. ‘Der Buddhismus bei den Mongolen.ʼ In Die Mongolen, ed. Walther Heissig, C.C. Müller. Innsbruck, Frankfurt. Vol. 2. 233 – 239.

  • Sagaster, Klaus 2007. ‘The History of Buddhism among the Mongols.ʼ In The Spread of Buddhism, ed. Ann Heirman and Stephan Peter Bumbacher. Leiden and Boston. 379 – 432.

  • Samuel, Geoffrey 2012. Introducing Tibetan Buddhism. Routledge.

  • Schmidt, Isaac Jacob 1829. Geschichte der Ost-Mongolen und ihres Fürstenhauses, verfasst von Ssanang Ssetsen Chungtaidschi der Ordus. Aus dem Mongolischen übersetzt, und mit dem Originaltexte, nebst Anmerkungen, Erläuterungen und Citaten aus andern unedirten Originalwerken herausgegeben von Isaac Jacob Schmidt, Doctor der Philosophie, Ehrenmitgliede der Asiatischen Gesellschaft in Paris und correspondirendem Mitgliede der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in St. Petersburg. St. Petersburg.

  • Serruys, Henry 1963. ‘Early Lamaism in Mongoliaʼ, Oriens Extremus 10. 181 – 216.

  • Serruys, Henry 1966. ‘Additional Note on the Origin of Lamaism in Mongoliaʼ, Oriens Extremus 13. 165 – 173.

  • Serruys, Henry 1974. ‘Two Remarkable Women in Mongolia: The Third Lady Erketü Qatun and Dayičing-Beiyijiʼ, Asia Major, N.S., Vol. XIX. 191 – 245.

  • Shastina, N.P. 1957. Šara tudzhi, Mongol’skaja letopis’ XVII veka. Moskva, Leningrad.

  • Shastina, N.P. 1973. Labsan danzan Altan tobči. Moskva.

  • Sneath, David 2007. The Headless State. Aristocratic Orders, Kinship Society, and Misrepresentations of Nomadic Inner Asia. New York.

  • Tsendina, A.D. 1999. Istorija Ėrdėni-dzu. Faksimile rukopisi. Perevod s mongol’skogo, vvedenie, kommentarij i prilozhenija. Moskva.

  • Vanchikova, Ts. P. 2001. Čaɣan teüke – “Belaja istorija” mongol’skij istoriko-pravovoj pamjatnik XIII-XVI vv. Sostavlenie kriticheskogo teksta i perevod “Beloj istorii” P.B. Baldanzhapova, issledovanie, redaktirovannie perevoda, sostavlenie kommentariev, podgotovka teksta “Beloj istorii” k publikatsii, perevod i kommentarij k “Shastre khana-chakravartina” i “Shastre Orunga” Ts. P. Vanchikovoj. Ulan-Ude.

  • Vietze, Hans-Peter 1978. Lehrbuch der mongolischen Sprache. Leipzig.

  • Vladimircov, Boris Ya. 1927. ‘Nadpisi na skalakh khalkhaskogo Coktu-tajdzhi, Iʼ, Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR II. 215 – 240.

  • Weiers, Michael 2004. Geschichte der Mongolen. Stuttgart.

  • Yang, L.S. 1965. ‘The Organisation of Chinese Official Historiography: Principles and Methods of the Standard Histories from the T’ang through the Ming Dynasty᾽. In Historians of China and Japan, ed. W.G. Beasley, Edward G. Pulleyblank. London. 44 – 59.

Purchase article
Get instant unlimited access to the article.
$42.00
Price including VAT
Log in
Already have access? Please log in.


Journal + Issues

Archiv für Religionsgeschichte is a specialised journal dealing primarily with religions of the ancient world. The different aspects of the field of research are covered in essays, reports on the main areas of religious studies and in individual articles.

Search