Infrared analysis of lipoproteins in the detection of alcohol biomarkers

Sander De Bruyne 1 , Tinne Monteyne 1 , Marijn M. Speeckaert 2 ,  and Joris R. Delanghe 1
  • 1 Department of Clinical Chemistry, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium
  • 2 Department of Internal Medicine, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium
Sander De Bruyne, Tinne Monteyne, Marijn M. Speeckaert and Joris R. Delanghe

Abstract

Background:

Alcoholism is a major public health problem. Alcohol causes modifications in the composition and concentration of lipoproteins and influences the enzymes and transfer proteins that transform lipoproteins in plasma. Alcohol is associated with the presence of alcohol biomarkers (fatty acid ethyl esters [FAEEs] and phosphatidylethanol [PEth]) in lipoproteins. We explore the possibilities of detecting alcohol biomarkers in non-high-density-lipoproteins (non-HDLs) precipitated from serum using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR).

Methods:

Analyzes were carried out on stored serum samples, with known % carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) values, included in a driver’s license regranting program under the control of the Belgian Institute of Road Safety. The study consisted of 127 control samples (CDT≤1.3%) and 114 alcoholic samples (CDT>1.3%). Liver enzymes, CRP, triglycerides, total, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol values were determined. Non-HDLs were precipitated with sodium phosphotungstate and MgCl2 and analyzed using ATR-FTIR in the range from 4500 cm−1 to 450 cm−1 using a Perkin Elmer ATR-FTIR Spectrometer Two.

Results:

The area under the curve of the 1130–990 cm−1 region (AUC1130−990 cm−1) was able to discriminate controls from alcoholics (p<0.0001) due to the presence of FAEEs in lipoproteins. Multiple regression analysis significantly predicted the AUC1130−990 cm−1 (adj. r2=0.13, p<0.0001). Significant correlations were found between AUC1130−990 cm−1 and CDT values (r=0.32, p<0.0001), AST/ALT ratio (r=0.21, p=0.001). GGT showed no significant correlation.

Conclusions:

Infrared analysis of lipoproteins is a potential tool in the detection of alcohol biomarkers.

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Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine ( CCLM) publishes articles on novel teaching and training methods applicable to laboratory medicine. CCLM welcomes contributions on the progress in fundamental and applied research and cutting-edge clinical laboratory medicine. It is one of the leading journals in the field, with an impact factor of over three. CCLM is the official journal of nine national clinical societies and associated with EFLM.

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