Entrepreneurial Orientation and Performance in South Korea: The Mediating Roles of Dynamic Capabilities and Corporate Entrepreneurship

Euncheon Lim 1  and Dohyeon Kim 1
  • 1 College of Business, Kookmin University, Seoul, Korea (the Republic of)
Euncheon Lim and Dohyeon Kim

Abstract

Although a cumulative body of literature explains entrepreneurial orientation (EO) and firm performance, there remain differing views on the mechanisms underlying this relationship. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of EO on firm performance by considering the roles of dynamic capabilities (DC) and corporate entrepreneurship (CE). We propose that DC and CE mediate the relationship between EO and firm performance, and our empirical results support these propositions. This study fills a gap in the literature on the EO–performance relationship by considering the linkages among disposition, capabilities, and activities in the South Korean context.

  • Alegre, J., and R. Chiva. 2013. “Linking Entrepreneurial Orientation and Firm Performance: The Role of Organizational Learning Capability and Innovation Performance.” Journal of Small Business Management 51 (4): 491–507. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Altinay, L., M. Madanoglu, G. De Vita, H. Arasli, and Y. Ekinci. 2016. “The Interface between Organizational Learning Capability, Entrepreneurial Orientation, and SME Growth.” Journal of Small Business Management 54 (3): 871–91. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Ambrosini, V., and C. Bowman. 2009. “What are Dynamic Capabilities and are They a Useful Construct in Strategic Management?.” International Journal of Management Reviews 11 (1): 29–49. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Anderson, J. C., and D. W. Gerbing. 1988. “Structural Equation Modeling in Practice: A Review and Recommended Two-Step Approach.” Psychological Bulletin 103 (3): 411. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Arbaugh, J. B., L. W. Cox, and S. M. Camp. 2009. “Is Entrepreneurial Orientation A Global Construct? A Multi-Country Study of Entrepreneurial Orientation, Growth Strategy, and Performance.” Journal of Business Inquiry 8 (1): 12–25.

  • Armstrong, J. S., and T. S. Overton. 1977. “Estimating Nonresponse Bias in Mail Surveys.” Journal of Marketing Research 396–402. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Bagozzi, R. P., and J. R. Edwards. 1998. “A General Approach for Representing Constructs in Organizational Research.” Organizational Research Methods 1 (1): 45–87. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Baker, W. E., and J. M. Sinkula. 2009. “The Complementary Effects of Market Orientation and Entrepreneurial Orientation on Profitability in Small Businesses.” Journal of Small Business Management 47 (4): 443–64. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Bandalos, D. L. 2002. “The Effects of Item Parceling on Goodness-Of-Fit and Parameter Estimate Bias in Structural Equation Modeling.” Structural Equation Modeling 9 (1): 78–102. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Barney, J. 1991. “Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage.” Journal of Management 17 (1): 99–120. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Barreto, I. 2009. “Dynamic Capabilities: A Review of past Research and an Agenda for the Future.” Journal of Management 36 (1): 256–80. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Baruch, Y. 1999. “Response Rate in Academic Studies-A Comparative Analysis.” Human Relations 52 (4): 421–38. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Bateman, T. S., and J. M. Crant. 1993. “The Proactive Component of Organizational Behavior: A Measure and Correlates.” Journal of Organizational Behavior 14 (2): 103–18. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Batjargal, B. 2007. “Internet Entrepreneurship: Social Capital, Human Capital, and Performance of Internet Ventures in China.” Research Policy 36 (5): 605–18. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Boso, N., V. M. Story, and J. W. Cadogan. 2013. “Entrepreneurial Orientation, Market Orientation, Network Ties, and Performance: Study of Entrepreneurial Firms in a Developing Economy.” Journal of Business Venturing 28 (6): 708–27. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Bouncken, R. B., B. D. Plüschke, R. Pesch, and S. Kraus. 2016. “Entrepreneurial Orientation in Vertical Alliances: Joint Product Innovation and Learning from Allies.” Review of Managerial Science 10 (2): 381–409. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Burgelman, R. A. 1983. “A Process Model of Internal Corporate Venturing in the Diversified Major Firm.” Administrative Science Quarterly 28 (2): 223–44. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Burgers, J. H., and J. G. Covin. 2016. “The Contingent Effects of Differentiation and Integration on Corporate Entrepreneurship.” Strategic Management Journal 37 (3): 521–40. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Celec, Robert, Dietfried Globocnik, and Phillipp Kruse. 2014. “Resources, Capabilities, Export Performance and the Moderating Role of Entrepreneurial Orientation in the Context of SMEs.” European Journal of International Management 8 (4): 440–64. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, J., Z. Zhu, and W. Anquan. 2005. “A System Model for Corporate Entrepreneurship.” International Journal of Manpower 26 (6): 529–43. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Cohen, W. M., and D. A. Levinthal. 1990. “Absorptive Capacity: A New Perspective on Learning and Innovation.” Administrative Science Quarterly 35 (1): 128–52. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Collis, D. J. 1991. “A Resource-Based Analysis of Global Competition: The Case of the Bearings Industry.” Strategic Management Journal 12 (S1): 49–68. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Covin, J. G., K. M. Green, and D. P. Slevin. 2006. “Strategic Process Effects on the Entrepreneurial Orientation–Sales Growth Rate Relationship.” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 30 (1): 57–81. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Covin, J. G., and G. T. Lumpkin. 2011. “Entrepreneurial Orientation Theory and Research: Reflections on a Needed Construct.” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 35 (5): 855–72. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Covin, J. G., and M. P. Miles. 2007. “Strategic Use of Corporate Venturing.” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 31 (2): 183–207. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Covin, J. G., and D. P. Slevin. 1989. “Strategic Management of Small Firms in Hostile and Benign Environments.” Strategic Management Journal 10 (1): 75–87. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Covin, J. G., and D. P. Slevin. 1991. “A Conceptual Model of Entrepreneurship as Firm Behavior.” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 16 (1): 7–25.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Covin, J. G., and W. J. Wales. 2012. “The Measurement of Entrepreneurial Orientation.” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 36 (4): 677–702. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Dai, L., V. Maksimov, B. A. Gilbert, and S. A. Fernhaber. 2014. “Entrepreneurial Orientation and International Scope: The Differential Roles of Innovativeness, Proactiveness, and Risk-Taking.” Journal of Business Venturing 29 (4): 511–24. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Danneels, E. 2016. “Survey Measures of First-And Second-Order Competences.” Strategic Management Journal 37 (10): 2174–88. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • De Clercq, D., D. Dimov, and N. Thongpapanl. 2010. “The Moderating Impact of Internal Social Exchange Processes on the Entrepreneurial Orientation–Performance Relationship.” Journal of Business Venturing 25 (1): 87–103. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • De Clercq, D., D. Dimov, and N. Thongpapanl. 2013. “Organizational Social Capital, Formalization, and Internal Knowledge Sharing in Entrepreneurial Orientation Formation.” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 37 (3): 505–37. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Dess, G. G., R. D. Ireland, S. A. Zahra, S. W. Floyd, J. J. Janney, and P. J. Lane. 2003. “Emerging Issues in Corporate Entrepreneurship.” Journal of Management 29 (3): 351–78. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Dess, G. G., and G. T. Lumpkin. 2005. “The Role of Entrepreneurial Orientation in Stimulating Effective Corporate Entrepreneurship.” Academy of Management Executive 19 (1): 147–56. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Dillman, D. A. 2000. Mail and Web-Based Survey: The Tailored Design Method. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

  • Eisenhardt, K. M., and J. A. Martin. 2000. “Dynamic Capabilities: What are They?.” Strategic Management Journal 21 (10-11): 1105–21. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Engelen, A., V. Gupta, L. Strenger, and M. Brettel. 2012. “Entrepreneurial Orientation, Firm Performance, and the Moderating Role of Transformational Leadership Behaviors.” Journal of Management 41 (4): 1069–97. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Engelen, A., A. Kaulfersch, and S. Schmidt. 2016. “The Contingent Role of Top Management’s Social Capital on the Relationship between Entrepreneurial Orientation and Performance.” Journal of Small Business Management 54 (3): 827–50. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Fornell, C., and D. F. Larcker. 1981. “Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error.” Journal of Marketing Research 18 (1): 39–50. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Frederick, H. H., D. F. Kuratko, and R. M. Hodgetts. 2007. Entrepreneurship: Theory, Process, Practice. Australia: Thomson/South-Western.

  • Gerbing, D. W., and J. C. Anderson. 1984. “On the Meaning of within-Factor Correlated Measurement Errors.” Journal of Consumer Research 11 (1): 572–80. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Griffith, D. A., and M. G. Harvey. 2001. “A Resource Perspective of Global Dynamic Capabilities.” Journal of International Business Studies 32 (3): 597–606. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Gupta, A. K., and V. Govindarajan. 1984. “Business Unit Strategy, Managerial Characteristics, and Business Unit Effectiveness at Strategy Implementation.” Academy of Management Journal 27 (1): 25–41. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Gupta, A. K., and V. Govindarajan. 2000. “Knowledge Management’s Social Dimension: Lessons from Nucor Steel.” MIT Sloan Management Review 42 (1): 71.

  • Guth, W. D., and A. Ginsberg. 1990. “Guest Editors’ Introduction: Corporate Entrepreneurship.” Strategic Management Journal 11 (4): 5–15.

  • Hall, R. J., A. F. Snell, and M. S. Foust. 1999. “Item Parceling Strategies in SEM: Investigating the Subtle Effects of Unmodeled Secondary Constructs.” Organizational Research Methods 2 (3): 233–56. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Hamel, G., and C. K. Prahalad. 1994. “Competing for the Future.” Harvard Business Review 72 (4): 122–28.

  • Hart, S. L. 1992. “An Integrative Framework for Strategy-Making Processes.” Academy of Management Review 17 (2): 327–51. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Hooper, D., J. Coughlan, and M. Mullen. 2008. “Structural Equation Modelling: Guidelines for Determining Model Fit.” Articles 2. http://arrow.dit.ie/libart/4

  • Ireland, R. D., J. G. Covin, and D. F. Kuratko. 2009. “Conceptualizing Corporate Entrepreneurship Strategy.” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 33 (1): 19–46. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Jantunen, A., K. Puumalainen, S. Saarenketo, and K. Kyläheiko. 2005. “Entrepreneurial Orientation, Dynamic Capabilities and International Performance.” Journal of International Entrepreneurship 3 (3): 223–43. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Karadeniz, Ş., and S. Vatanartıran. 2013. “Adaptation of a Tpack Survey to Turkish for Secondary School Teachers.” Journal of Human Sciences 10 (2): 34–47.

  • Katila, R., and G. Ahuja. 2002. “Something Old, Something New: A Longitudinal Study of Search Behavior and New Product Introduction.” Academy of Management Journal 45 (6): 1183–94. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Keh, H. T., T. T. M. Nguyen, and H. P. Ng. 2007. “The Effects of Entrepreneurial Orientation and Marketing Information on the Performance of SMEs.” Journal of Business Venturing 22 (4): 592–611. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Ketchen, D. J., G. T. M. Hult, and S. F. Slater. 2007. “Toward Greater Understanding of Market Orientation and the Resource-Based View.” Strategic Management Journal 28 (9): 961–64. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Knight, G. A. 1997. “Cross-Cultural Reliability and Validity of a Scale to Measure Firm Entrepreneurial Orientation.” Journal of Business Venturing 12 (3): 213–25. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Kollmann, T., and C. Stöckmann. 2014. “Filling the Entrepreneurial Orientation–Performance Gap: The Mediating Effects of Exploratory and Exploitative Innovations.” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 38 (5): 1001–26. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Kostopoulos, K., A. Papalexandris, M. Papachroni, and G. Ioannou. 2011. “Absorptive Capacity, Innovation, and Financial Performance.” Journal of Business Research 64 (12): 1335–43. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Kraus, S., and C. Rigtering. 2010. “Corporate Entrepreneurship as a Company Philosophy: The Case of ‘&Samhoud’.” International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation 11 (3): 245–49. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Kuratko, D. F., R. D. Ireland, and J. S. Hornsby. 2001. “Improving Firm Performance through Entrepreneurial Actions: Acordia’s Corporate Entrepreneurship Strategy.” Academy of Management Executive 15 (4): 60–71. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Lant, T. K., and S. J. Mezias. 1992. “An Organizational Learning Model of Convergence and Reorientation.” Organization Science 3 (1): 47–71. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Lavie, D. 2006. “Capability Reconfiguration: An Analysis of Incumbent Responses to Technological Change.” Academy of Management Review 31 (1): 153–74. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Lee, C., K. Lee, and J. M. Pennings. 2001. “Internal Capabilities, External Networks, and Performance: A Study on Technology-Based Ventures.” Strategic Management Journal 22 (6-7): 615–40. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Little, T. D., W. A. Cunningham, G. Shahar, and K. F. Widaman. 2002. “To Parcel or Not to Parcel: Exploring the Question, Weighing the Merits.” Structural Equation Modeling 9 (2): 151–73. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Lubatkin, M. H., S. Zeki, Y. Ling, and J. F. Veiga. 2006. “Ambidexterity and Performance in Small-To Medium-Sized Firms: The Pivotal Role of Top Management Team Behavioral Integration.” Journal of Management 32 (5): 646–72. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Lumpkin, G. T., and G. G. Dess. 1996. “Clarifying the Entrepreneurial Orientation Construct and Linking It to Performance.” Academy of Management Review 21 (1): 135–72. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Lumpkin, G. T., and G. G. Dess. 2001. “Linking Two Dimensions of Entrepreneurial Orientation to Firm Performance: The Moderating Role of Environment and Industry Life Cycle.” Journal of Business Venturing 16 (5): 429–51. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Luo, Y. 2002. “Capability Exploitation and Building in a Foreign Market: Implications for Multinational Enterprises.” Organization Science 13 (1): 48–63. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • March, J. G. 1991. “Exploration and Exploitation in Organizational Learning.” Organization Science 2 (1): 71–87. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Marsh, H. W., and V. Ayotte. 2003. “Do Multiple Dimensions of Self-Concept Become More Differentiated with Age? the Differential Distinctiveness Hypothesis.” Journal of Educational Psychology 95 (4): 687–706. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Martín-Rojas, R., V. J. García-Morales, and E. García-Sánchez. 2011. “The Influence on Corporate Entrepreneurship of Technological Variables.” Industrial Management and Data Systems 111 (7): 984–1005. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Messersmith, J. G., and W. J. Wales. 2011. “Entrepreneurial Orientation and Performance in Young Firms: The Role of Human Resource Management.” International Small Business Journal 31 (2): 115–36. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Miller, D. 1983. “The Correlates of Entrepreneurship in Three Types of Firms.” Management Science 29 (7): 770–91. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Miller, D. 2011. “Revisited: A Reflection on EO Research and Some Suggestions for the Future.” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 35 (5): 873–94. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Miller, D, and P. H. Friesen. 1982. “Innovation in Conservative and Entrepreneurial Firms: Two Models of Strategic Momentum.” Strategic Management Journal 3 (1): 1–25. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Moreno, A. M., and J. C. Casillas. 2008. “Entrepreneurial Orientation and Growth of SMEs: A Causal Model.” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 32 (3): 507–28. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Nunnally, J. 1978. Psychometric Methods. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

  • O’Cass, A., and P. Sok. 2013. “The Role of Intellectual Resources, Product Innovation Capability, Reputational Resources and Marketing Capability Combinations in Firm Growth.” International Small Business Journal 32 (8): 996–1018. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Pablo, A. L., T. Reay, J. R. Dewald, and A. L. Casebeer. 2007. “Identifying, Enabling and Managing Dynamic Capabilities in the Public Sector.” Journal of Management Studies 44 (5): 687–708. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Perks, K. J. 2006. “Influences on Strategic Management Styles among Fast Growth Medium-Sized Firms in France and Germany.” Strategic Change 15 (3): 153–64. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Podsakoff, P. M., S. B. MacKenzie, J.-Y. Lee, and N. P. Podsakoff. 2003. “Common Method Biases in Behavioral Research: A Critical Review of the Literature and Recommended Remedies.” Journal of Applied Psychology 88 (5): 879–903. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Podsakoff, P. M., and D. W. Organ. 1986. “Self-Reports in Organizational Research: Problems and Prospects.” Journal of Management 12 (4): 531–44. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Priem, R. L., and J. E. Butler. 2001. “Is the Resource-Based "View" a Useful Perspective for Strategic Management Research?.” Academy of Management Review 26 (1): 22–40. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Rauch, A., J. Wiklund, G. T. Lumpkin, and M. Frese. 2009. “Entrepreneurial Orientation and Business Performance: An Assessment of past Research and Suggestions for the Future.” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 33 (3): 761–87. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Ray, G., J. B. Barney, and W. A. Muhanna. 2004. “Capabilities, Business Processes, and Competitive Advantage: Choosing the Dependent Variable in Empirical Tests of the Resource-Based View.” Strategic Management Journal 25 (1): 23–37. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Reed, R., and R. J. Defillippi. 1990. “Causal Ambiguity, Barriers to Imitation, and Sustainable Competitive Advantage.” Academy of Management Review 15 (1): 88–102. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Rigtering, J. C., S. Kraus, F. Eggers, and S. H. Jensen. 2014. “A Comparative Analysis of the Entrepreneurial Orientation/Growth Relationship in Service Firms and Manufacturing Firms.” Service Industries Journal 34 (4): 275–94. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Schilke, O. 2014. “Second-Order Dynamic Capabilities: How Do They Matter?.” Academy of Management Perspectives 28 (4): 368–80. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Semrau, T., T. Ambos, and K. Sascha. 2016. “Entrepreneurial Orientation and SME Performance across Societal Cultures: An International Study.” Journal of Business Research 69 (5): 1928–32. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Shane, S., and S. Venkataraman. 2000. “The Promise of Entrepreneurship as a Field of Research.” Academy of Management Review 25 (1): 217–26. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Simsek, Z., J. F. Veiga, and M. H. Lubatkin. 2007. “The Impact of Managerial Environmental Perceptions on Corporate Entrepreneurship: Towards Understanding Discretionary Slack’s Pivotal Role.” Journal of Management Studies 44 (8): 1398–424. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Singh, J. V. 1986. “Performance, Slack, and Risk Taking in Organizational Decision Making.” Academy of Management Journal 29 (3): 562–85. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Sirmon, D. G., and M. A. Hitt. 2003. “Managing Resources: Linking Unique Resources, Management, and Wealth Creation in Family Firms.” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 27 (4): 339–58. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Slevin, D. P., and J. G. Covin. 1990. “Juggling Entrepreneurial Style and Organizational Structure.” MIT Sloan Management Review 31 (2): 43.

  • Stam, W., and T. Elfring. 2008. “Entrepreneurial Orientation and New Venture Performance: The Moderating Role of Intra-And Extraindustry Social Capital.” Academy of Management Journal 51 (1): 97–111. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Su, Z., E. Xie, and Y. Li. 2011. “Entrepreneurial Orientation and Firm Performance in New Ventures and Established Firms.” Journal of Small Business Management 49 (4): 558–77. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • SubbaNarasimha, P. N. 2001. “Strategy in Turbulent Environments: The Role of Dynamic Competence.” Managerial and Decision Economics 22 (4-5): 201–12. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Tang, J., Z. Tang, L. D. Marino, Y. Zhang, and Q. Li. 2008. “Exploring an Inverted U‐Shape Relationship between Entrepreneurial Orientation and Performance in Chinese Ventures.” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 32 (1): 219–39. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Teece, D. J. 2007. “Explicating Dynamic Capabilities: The Nature and Microfoundations of (Sustainable) Enterprise Performance.” Strategic Management Journal 28 (13): 1319–50. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Teece, D. J. 2014. “The Foundations of Enterprise Performance: Dynamic and Ordinary Capabilities in an (Economic) Theory of Firms.” Academy of Management Perspectives 28 (4): 328–52. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Teece, D. J., G. Pisano, and A. Shuen. 1997. “Dynamic Capabilities and Strategic Management.” Strategic Management Journal 18 (7): 509–33. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Venkatraman, N. 1989. “The Concept of Fit in Strategy Research: Toward Verbal and Statistical Correspondence.” Academy of Management Review 14 (3): 423–44. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Villanueva, J., A. H. Van de Ven, and H. J. Sapienza. 2012. “Resource Mobilization in Entrepreneurial Firms.” Journal of Business Venturing 27 (1): 19–30. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Wales, W., E. Monsen, and A. McKelvie. 2011. “The Organizational Pervasiveness of Entrepreneurial Orientation.” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 35 (5): 895–923. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Wales, W. J., P. C. Patel, V. Parida, and P. M. Kreiser. 2013. “Nonlinear Effects of Entrepreneurial Orientation on Small Firm Performance: The Moderating Role of Resource Orchestration Capabilities.” Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal 7 (2): 93–121. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, C. L. 2008. “Entrepreneurial Orientation, Learning Orientation, and Firm Performance.” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 32 (4): 635–57. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Wernerfelt, B. 1984. “A Resource‐Based View of the Firm.” Strategic Management Journal 5 (2): 171–80. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Wiklund, J. 1998. Small Firm Growth and Performance: Entrepreneurship and Beyond. Lärosäte: Internationella Handelshögskolan I Jönköping.

  • Wiklund, J. 2006. “The Sustainability of the Entrepreneurial Orientation–Performance Relationship.” In Entrepreneurship and the Growth of Firms, edited by P. Davidsson, F. Delmar, and J. Wiklund, 141–55. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.

  • Wiklund, J., and D. Shepherd. 2003. “Knowledge-Based Resources, Entrepreneurial Orientation, and the Performance of Small and Medium-Sized Businesses.” Strategic Management Journal 24 (13): 1307–14. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Wiklund, J., and D. Shepherd. 2005. “Entrepreneurial Orientation and Small Business Performance: A Configurational Approach.” Journal of Business Venturing 20 (1): 71–91. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Wisner, J. D. 2003. “A Structural Equation Model of Supply Chain Management Strategies and Firm Performance.” Journal of Business Logistics 24 (1): 1–26. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Worthington, R. L., and T. A. Whittaker. 2006. “Scale Development Research: A Content Analysis and Recommendations for Best Practices.” Counseling Psychologist 34 (6): 806–38. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, L. Y. 2010. “Applicability of the Resource-Based and Dynamic-Capability Views under Environmental Volatility.” Journal of Business Research 63 (1): 27–31. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Yiu, D. W., and C.-M. Lau. 2008. “Corporate Entrepreneurship as Resource Capital Configuration in Emerging Market Firms.” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 32 (1): 37–57. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Zachary, Ramona K, and Chandra S Mishra. 2011. “The Future of Entrepreneurship Research: Calling All Researchers.” Entrepreneurship Research Journal 1 (1): 1–13. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Zahra, S. A. 1991. “Predictors and Financial Outcomes of Corporate Entrepreneurship: An Exploratory Study.” Journal of Business Venturing 6 (4): 259–85. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Zahra, S. A. 1993. “Environment, Corporate Entrepreneurship, and Financial Performance: A Taxonomic Approach.” Journal of Business Venturing 8 (4): 319–40. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Zahra, S. A. 1996. “Governance, Ownership, and Corporate Entrepreneurship: The Moderating Impact of Industry Technological Opportunities.” Academy of Management Journal 39 (6): 1713–35. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Zahra, S. A., and J. G. Covin. 1995. “Contextual Influences on the Corporate Entrepreneurship-Performance Relationship: A Longitudinal Analysis.” Journal of Business Venturing 10 (1): 43–58. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Zahra, S. A., I. Filatotchev, and M. Wright. 2009. “How Do Threshold Firms Sustain Corporate Entrepreneurship? the Role of Boards and Absorptive Capacity.” Journal of Business Venturing 24 (3): 248–60. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Zahra, S. A., and D. M. Garvis. 2000. “International Corporate Entrepreneurship and Firm Performance: The Moderating Effect of International Environmental Hostility.” Journal of Business Venturing 15 (5): 469–92. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Zahra, S. A., D. O. Neubaum, and M. Huse. 2000. “Entrepreneurship in Medium-Size Companies: Exploring the Effects of Ownership and Governance Systems.” Journal of Management 26 (5): 947–76. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Zahra, S. A., H. J. Sapienza, and P. Davidsson. 2006. “Entrepreneurship and Dynamic Capabilities: A Review, Model and Research Agenda.” Journal of Management Studies 43 (4): 917–55. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Zollo, M., and S. G. Winter. 2002. “Deliberate Learning and the Evolution of Dynamic Capabilities.” Organization Science 13 (3): 339–51. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Zott, C. 2003. “Dynamic Capabilities and the Emergence of Intraindustry Differential Firm Performance: Insights from a Simulation Study.” Strategic Management Journal 24 (2): 97–125. .

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
Purchase article
Get instant unlimited access to the article.
$42.00
Log in
Already have access? Please log in.


or
Log in with your institution

Journal + Issues

Positioned as the premier research journal within the field of entrepreneurship, the Entrepreneurship Research Journal (ERJ) is a forum for scholarly discussion on entrepreneurs and their activities, contexts, processes, strategies and outcomes. It seeks to encourage a scholarly exchange between researchers from any field of study who focus on entrepreneurs and includes both theoretical and empirical articles.

Search