Application of the end loaded split and single-leg bending tests to the mixed-mode fracture characterization of wood

Jorge M.Q. Oliveira 1 , Marcelo F.S.F. de Moura 2 ,  and José J.L. Morais 3
  • 1 Departamento de Engenharia de Madeiras, Instituto Superior Politécnico de Viseu, Viseu, Portugal
  • 2 Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Gestão Industrial, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal
  • 3 CITAB – Center for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal


This work describes the application of end loaded split and single-leg bending tests to the mixed-mode fracture characterization of wood. Experimental tests and numerical validation analyses were performed. A new data reduction scheme based on the crack equivalent concept is proposed. The method overcomes the difficulties inherent to these tests, such as crack length monitoring during propagation and influence of clamping conditions. The single-leg bending test is simpler to execute and provided accurate results. The obtained mixed-mode fracture energy is associated with the pure mode values and the obtained trend point to a linear fracture criterion as a candidate to describe the fracture behavior of the Pinus pinaster Ait. wood.

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Holzforschung is an international scholarly journal that publishes cutting-edge research on the biology, chemistry, physics and technology of wood and wood components. High quality papers about biotechnology and tree genetics are also welcome. Rated year after year as one of the top scientific journals in the category of Pulp and Paper (ISI Journal Citation Index), Holzforschung represents innovative, high quality basic and applied research.