A mathematical model for mixed convection flow of a nanofluid along a vertical wavy surface has been studied. Numerical results reveal the effects of the volume fraction of nanoparticles, the axial distribution, the Richardson number, and the amplitude/wavelength ratio on the heat transfer of Al2O3-water nanofluid. By increasing the volume fraction of nanoparticles, the local Nusselt number and the thermal boundary layer increases significantly. In case of , the inclusion of 2 % and 5 % nanoparticles in the pure fluid augments the local Nusselt number, measured at the axial position 6.0, by 6.6 % and 16.3 % for a flat plate and by 5.9 % and 14.5 %, and 5.4 % and 13.3 % for the wavy surfaces with an amplitude/wavelength ratio of 0.1 and 0.2, respectively. However, when the Richardson number is increased, the local Nusselt number is found to increase but the thermal boundary layer decreases. For small values of the amplitude/wavelength ratio, the two harmonics pattern of the energy field cannot be detected by the local Nusselt number curve, however the isotherms clearly demonstrate this characteristic. The pressure leads to the first harmonic, and the buoyancy, diffusion, and inertia forces produce the second harmonic.
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