Two types of additional variables were included in the set of state variables and were used for a thermodynamic description of diffusion in an ordinary thermodynamic system. Vacancies are included in the mass balance. Internal surfaces are massless but are characterized by some energy, which is included in the energy balance of the thermodynamic system. Fluxes of components, vacancies, and surfaces were expressed via two groups of thermodynamic constitutive equations of with cross effects. The first group follows from the Gibbs equation. These are state equations in a differential form. The second group relates generalized thermodynamic fluxes to generalized thermodynamic forces. It was shown for a binary system that only three of six transfer coefficients are independent even if the mass transfer mechanism caused by the stress gradient is taken into account.
S. Kurasch, J. Kotakoski, O. Lehtinen, V. Skákalová, Ju. Smet, C. E. Krill, et al., Atom-by-Atom Observation of Grain Boundary Migration in Graphene, Nano Lett.12 (2012), 3168–3173.10.1021/nl301141g22554303)| false
E. S. Parfenova and A. G. Knyazeva, The Features of Diffusion and Mechanical Waves Interaction at the Initial Stage of Metal Surface Treatment by Particle Beam under Nonisothermal Conditions, Key Eng. Mater.712 (2016), 99–104.
E. S. Parfenova and A. G. Knyazeva, The Features of Diffusion and Mechanical Waves Interaction at the Initial Stage of Metal Surface Treatment by Particle Beam under Nonisothermal Conditions, Key Eng. Mater.712 (2016), 99–104.10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.712.99)| false
Journal of Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics serves as an international publication organ for new ideas, insights and results on non-equilibrium phenomena in science, engineering and related natural systems. The central aim of the journal is to provide a bridge between science and engineering and to promote scientific exchange on non-equilibrium phenomena and on analytic or numeric modeling for their interpretation.