In 1782 Spain and the Ottoman Empire signed the first peace and trade treaty, which led to the establishment of the first Spanish embassy in Constantinople. The author of the accord was Juan de Bouligny, a Spanish merchant of French origin. The negotiations by Bouligny proved to be protracted and difficult. Among other things, communication with the Ottoman authorities was a major obstacle, as they only dealt with foreign powers via so-called “dragomans”, namely certified interpreters with special privileges. This prompted Bouligny soon afterwards to hire foreign interpreters, even though they had traditionally been treated with suspicion of being unfaithful. This paper will examine and explain the living conditions of the Spanish dragomans and their role in the international diplomacy of that period.