Towards a CPD Framework of Reference for the Translation Profession

Ehsan Taebi 1  and Mir Saeed Mousavi Razavi 2
  • 1 PhD Candidate in Translation (and Interpreting) Studies, Department of English Language and Literature, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran (Islamic Republic of)
  • 2 Department of English Translation, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran (Islamic Republic of)
Ehsan Taebi
  • Corresponding author
  • PhD Candidate in Translation (and Interpreting) Studies, Department of English Language and Literature, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran (Islamic Republic of)
  • Email
  • Search for other articles:
  • degruyter.comGoogle Scholar
and Mir Saeed Mousavi Razavi
  • Department of English Translation, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran (Islamic Republic of)
  • Email
  • Search for other articles:
  • degruyter.comGoogle Scholar


Population ageing continues to perpetuate the widening of the generation gap in a world where the younger inexperienced yet “tech-savvier” novice trainee is trained by the elder professional albeit more conservative “expert” trainer. It is against this backdrop that Continuing Professional Development (CPD) finds more significance. We have argued that systematic CPD ought to be an integral component of any translator qualification programme. Based on this premise, we have defined qualification-oriented competence and CPD for translators and then proposed our preliminary five-stage CPD framework of reference for the translation profession which revolves around the core concepts of translation competence (TC), TC emergence, and reciprocal mentoring.

  • Baker, Mona / Saldanha, Gabriela (2009): Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies. 2nd. New York: Routlegde.

  • Baker, Mona / Saldanha, Gabriela (2020): Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies. 3rd. London/New York: Routledge.

  • Baur, Wolfram / Mayer, Felix (2019) (eds.): Translating and Interpreting 4.0: New Ways in the Digital Age. Berlin: BDÜ Fachverlag.

  • Birman, Beatrice F. / Desimone, Laura / Porter Andy C. /Garet, Michael, C. (2000): “Designing Professional Development that Works.” Educational Leadership 57(8), 28–33.

  • Boeh, Kimberly A. (2016): “Mentoring: Fostering the Profession While Mitigating the Gap.” PhD Dissertation, Monmouth: Western Oregon University. [July 3, 2020]

  • Bolam, Ray (2000): “Emerging Policy Trends: Some Implications for Continuing Professional Development.” Journal of In-service Education 26(2), 267–280.

  • Cambridge Assessment English (no date): Cambridge English Teaching Framework. [June 27, 2020]

  • Chaudhuri, Sanghamitra / Ghosh, Rajashi (2012): “Reverse Mentoring: A Social Exchange Tool for Keeping the Boomers Engaged and Millennials Committed.” Human Resource Development Review (Sage) II (I): 55–76. doi:10.1177/1534484311417562.

  • Chesterman, Andrew (2009): “The Name and Nature of Translator Studies.” Hermes 42 (15), 13–22.

  • Chomsky, Noam (1965). Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cambridge/MA: MIT Press.

  • Cohen, Norman (1995). Mentoring Adult Learners: A Guide for Educators and Trainers. Florida: Krieger.

  • Dadds, Marion (1997): “Continuing Professional Development: Nurturing the Expert within.” Journal of In-Service Education 23(1), 31–38. doi:10.1080/13674589700200007.

  • Darwish, Ali (2010): Translation Applied! An Introduction to Translation Studies: A transactional model. Melbourne: Writescope Publishers.

  • Dastyar, Vorya (2019): Dictionary of Education and Assessment in Translation and Interpreting Studies (TIS). Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

  • Day, Christopher / Bakioglu, Aysen (1996): “Development and Disenchantment in the Professional Lives of Headteachers”. Goodson Ivor / Hargreaves Andy (1996) (eds.): Teachers’ Professional Lives. London: Falmar Press.

  • Day, Christopher / Sachs Judyth (2004): International Handbook on the Continuing Professional Development of Teachers. Berkshire: Open University Press.

  • De Haan, Martin / Hofstede Rokus (2008): *Great translation by the Way: A Pamphlet for Preserving a Flourishing Translation Culture. Translated into English by Jane Hedley-Prôle / S. J. Leinbach. Amsterdam, Brussels. The Dutch Language Union, the Expertise Centre for Literary Translation, the Dutch Foundation for Literature, the Flemish Literature Fund & the Foundation for the Production and Translation of Dutch Literature, May. [08, 06, 2019]

  • Delk, Linda (2013): Interpreter Mentoring: A Theory-based Approach to Program Design and Eval-uation. 28 February. [June 2020, 14]

  • EMT (2017): “European Master’s in Translation Competence Framework 2017.” European Commission. December. [July 2, 2020]

  • EMT Expert Group (2009): “Competences for Professional Translators, Experts in Multilingual and Multimedia Communication.” European Commission. January. [July 1, 2020]

  • Esfandiari, Mohammad Reza / Sepora, Tengku / Mahadi, Tengku (2015): “Translation Competence: Aging Towards Modern Views.” Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 192, 44–53. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.06.007.

  • European Commission (2008): European e-Competence Framework. doi:10.2766/14352 [August 25, 2019]

  • Friedman, Andrew / Philips, Mary (2004): “Continuing Professional Development: Developing a Vision.” Journal of Education and Work (Carfax Publishing (Taylor & Francis Group)) 17 (3), 361–376. doi:10.1080/1363908042000267432 .

  • Friedman, Andrew / Philips, Mary (2002): “The Role of Mentoring in the CPD Programmes of Professional Associations.” International Journal of Lifelong Education (Taylor and Francis) 21 (3), 269–284. doi:10.1080/02601370210127864.

  • Gile, Daniel (2009): Basic Concepts and Models for Interpreter and Translator Training (revised edition). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

  • Godbout, Marielle (2009): “Is Translation a Profession?” Omar, Hasuria Che / Haroon, Haslina / Aniswal, Abdul-Ghani (eds.): The Sustainability of the Translation Field: 12th International Conference on Translation. Kualalampur: ITBM, 519–531.

  • Hargreaves, Andy (1994): Changing teachers, changing times: teachers’ work and culture in the postmodern age. London: Cassell.

  • Hurtado Albir, Amparo (2007): “Competence-based Curriculum Design for Training Translators.” The Interpreter and Translator Trainer 1 (2): 163–195.

  • Institute of Translation & Interpreting (ITI) (2012): “Continuing Professional Development (CPD): User guide.” Vers. 1. Institute of Translation & Interpreting (ITI). November. [February 20, 2019]

  • Institute of Translation and Interpreting (ITI) (no date): CPD. [June 26, 2020]

  • Kafi, Mohsen/ Khoshsaligheh, Masood / Mohammad Reza Hashemi (2017): “Translation Profession in Iran: Current Challenges and Future Prospects.” The Translator 24 (1), 89–103. doi:10.1080/13556509.2017.1297693.

  • Kiraly, Donald C (2013): “Towards a View of Translator Competence as an Emergent Phenomenon: Thinking Outside the Box(es) in Translator Education”. Kiraly Donald C / Hansen-Schirra Silvia / Maksymski Karin (2013) (eds.): New prospects and perspectives for educating language mediators. Tübingen: Narr Verlag, 197–224.

  • Kiraly, Donald C. (2000): A Social Constructivist Approach to Translation Education. Manchester: St. Jerome Publishing.

  • Kline, Rex B. (2010): Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling. 3rd. New York: Guilford Press.

  • Little, J. W. (2003): “Inside Teacher Community: Representations of Classroom Practice.” Teachers College 913–945.

  • Megginson, David / Whitaker, Vivien (2007): Continuing Professional Development. 2nd. London: Charted Institute of Personnel and Development.

  • Mellinger, Christopher D / Hanson, Thomas A. (2017): Quantitative Research Methods in Translation and Interpreting Studies. London/New York: Routledge.

  • Murphy, Wendy M. (2012): “Reverse Mentoring at Work: Fostering Cross-Generational Learning and Developing Millennial Leaders.” Human Resource Management (Wiley Periodicals, Inc) 51 (4): 549–574.

  • National Accreditation Authority for Translators & Interpreters (NAATI) (no date): “NAATI recertification professional development catalogue.” Vers. 1.2. NAATI [Accessed June 26, 2020]

  • Olalla-Soler, Christian (2019): “Bridging the Gap Between Translation and Interpreting Students and Freelance Professionals: The Mentoring Programme of the Professional Association of Translators and Interpreters of Catalonia.” The Interpreter and Translator Trainer 13 (1), 64–85. doi:10.1080/1750399X.2018.1540741.

  • PACTE Group (2003): “Building a Translation Competence Model”. Fabio Alves (2003) (ed.): Triangulating Translation: Perspectives in Process Oriented Research. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 43–66.

  • PACTE (2000): “Investigating Translation: Selected papers from the 4th international congress on translation, Barcelona, 1998.” Edited by Allison Beeby, Doris Ensinger and Marisa Presas. International Congress on Translation. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 99–106.

  • Pelgrum, Willen. J. (2001): “Obstacles to the Integration of ICT in Education: Results from a Worldwide Educational Assessment.” Computers & Education 37 (2), 163–178.

  • Prensky, Marc (2001): “Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants Part 1.” On the Horizon 9 (5), 1–6.

  • Pym, Anthony. (2003): “Redefining Translation Competence in an Electronic Age: Defense of a Minimalist Approach.” Meta 48 (4): 481–497.

  • Schmitt, Peter A. (2019): “Translation 4.0 – Evolution, Revolution, Innovation or Disruption?” Lebende Sprachen 64(2): 193–229.

  • Sherwin, Ann C. (1994): “The Value of Local Translator Groups”. Vol. VII, Deanna L Hammond (1994) (ed.): Professional Issues for Translators and Interpreters (American Translators Association Scholarly Monograph Series). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 23–33.

  • Starcevich, Matt / Friend, Fred (1999): “Effective Mentoring Relationships from the Mentee’s Perspective.” Supplement to Workforce, 2–3.

  • Statistical Centre of Iran (2018): “Iran Statistical Yearbook (2017–2018)”–2018 [January 30, 2019]

  • Talbert, Joan E. / McLaughlin, Milbrey W. (1994): “Teacher Professionalism in Local School Contexts.” American Journal of Education 102(2), 123–153.

  • Tehran Times (2019): “Iran to have oldest population in region by 2050.” 28 September. [June 11, 2020]

  • Translation Commons (2019): “Mentoring Guidelines for Translators and Interpreters.” Ver. 2. [June 14, 2020]

  • UN Statistics Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs (2019): “World Statistics Pocketbook.” Vol. V. no. 43. New York: United Nations. [February 25, 2019]

  • United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2019): World Population Ageing 2019 (Highlights). (ST/ESA/SER.A/430), New York: United Nations. [June 11, 2020]

  • US Bureau of Labor Statistics (no date): “Interpreters and Translators: Occupational Outlook Handbook. [February 19, 2019]

  • Vygotsky, Lev S. (1978): Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes. Michael Cole / Vera John-Steiner / Sylvia Scribner / Ellen Souberman (eds.), Cambridge/Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

  • Winston, Betsy / Robert G. Lee (2013): Mentorship in Sign Language Interpreting. Alexia, VA: Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf.

Purchase article
Get instant unlimited access to the article.
Log in
Already have access? Please log in.

Log in with your institution

Journal + Issues