Knowledge is fast becoming a source of competitive advantage that makes a difference between success and failure for both profit and non-profit organisations. The International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) is a non-profit organisation which has initiated a knowledge management programme recently. This study looks at how knowledge is generated in ILRI, how it is shared, how it is transferred and how it is integrated into the day-to-day operations of the Institute. It also looks at how the Institute encourages its employees to acquire new knowledge as well as share knowledge with others within and outside the Institute. Some of the challenges that the ILRI faces in managing knowledge are identified, and solutions which cannot always rely on information technology are discussed.