When evidentials are not evidentials: The case of the Ecuadorian Siona reportative

  • 1 Chica Narváez #2-05 y Mejía, Ibarra 100103, Ecuador
Martine Bruil

Abstract

The Ecuadorian Siona reportative is prima facie an evidential par excellence because it indicates that the information contained in the utterance has been acquired through hearsay. However, the morphosyntactic and semantic behavior of the reportative verb form demonstrates that it is not an evidential. Rather, it is part of the clause-typing system, together with the assertive, interrogative, and imperative. Clause-typing relates to the assignment of authority: the speaker holds the epistemic authority in assertions, the addressee in questions, and a non-speech-act participant in reports. The hearsay reading of the reportative clause type emanates from a shift of epistemic authority.

  • Aikhenvald, Alexandra Y. 2003. Evidentiality in typological perspective. In Aikhenvald & Dixon (eds.) 2003. 1–31.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Aikhenvald, Alexandra Y. 2004. Evidentiality. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Aikhenvald, Alexandra Y. 2010. Imperatives and commands. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Aikhenvald, Alexandra Y. & R. M. W. Dixon (eds.). 2003. Studies in evidentiality. Amsterdam: Banjamins.

  • Aksu-Koç, Ayhan & Dan I. Slobin. 1986. A psychological account of the development and use of evidentials in Turkish. In Chafe & Nichols (eds.) 1986, 159–167.

  • Anderson, Lloyd B. 1986. Evidentials, paths of change and mental maps: Typologically regular asymmetries. In Chafe & Nichols (eds.) 1986, 273–312.

  • Austin, John L. 1962. How to do things with words. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Barnes, Janet. 1984. The evidentials in the Tuyuca verb. International Journal of American Linguistics 50. 255–271.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Bocheński, Józef Maria. 1974. Was ist Autorität? Einführung in die Logik der Autorität. Freiburg: Herder.

  • Botne, Robert. 1997. Evidentiality and epistemic modality in Lega. Studies in Language 21. 509–532.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Boye, Kasper & Peter Harder. 2009. Evidentiality: Linguistic categories and grammaticalization. Functions of Language 16. 9–43.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Bruil, Martine. 2012. Marking the knower in Ecuadorian Siona. Paper presented at the Egophoricity Meeting, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, 8 March.

  • Bruil, Martine. 2014. Clause-typing and evidentiality in Ecuadorian Siona. Leiden: Universiteit Leiden doctoral dissertation.

  • Chacón, Thiago Costa. 2012. The phonology and morphology of Kubeo: The documentation, theory, and description of an Amazonian language. Manoa: University of Hawai’i doctoral dissertation.

  • Chafe, Wallace L. & Johanna Nichols (eds.). 1986. Evidentiality: The linguistic coding of epistemology. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

  • Chierchia, Gennaro & Sally McConnell-Ginet. 1990. Meaning and grammar: An introduction to semantics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

  • Clift, Rebecca. 2006. Indexing stance: Reported speech as an interactional evidential. Journal of Sociolinguistics 10. 569–595.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Comrie, Bernard. 2000. Evidentials: Semantics and history. In Lars Johanson & Bo Utas (eds.), Evidentials: Turkic, Iranian and neighbouring languages, 1–12. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Cornillie, Bert. 2009. Evidentiality and epistemic modality: On the close relation between two different categories. Functions in Language 16. 44–62.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Creissels, Denis. 2008. Remarks on so-called “conjunct/disjunct” systems. Paper presented at the conference “Syntax of the World’s Languages III”, Freie Universität Berlin, 25–28 September.

  • Curnow, Timothy Jowan. 1997. A grammar of Awa Pit (Cuaiquer): An indigenous language of South-Western Colombia. Canberra: Australian National University doctoral dissertation.

  • Curnow, Timothy Jowan. 2002. Conjunct/disjunct marking in Awa Pit. Linguistics 40. 611–627.

  • de Haan, Ferdinand. 1999. Evidentiality and epistemic modality: Setting boundaries. Southwest Journal of Linguistics 18. 83–101.

  • de Haan, Ferdinand. 2000. Evidentiality in Dutch. Berkeley Linguistics Society 25. 74–85.

  • de Haan, Ferdinand. 2001. The relation between modality and evidentiality. Linguistische Berichte 9. 201–216.

  • Dickinson, Connie Sue. 2011. Grammaticalizing the knower in Tsafiki. Paper presented at the Linguistic Institute workshop on “The grammar of knowledge asymmetries: ‘Conjunct/Disjunct’ alignment from a cross-linguistic perspective”, Boulder, CO, 13 July.

  • Diewald, Gabriele & Elena Smirnova. 2010. Evidentiality in European languages: The lexical-grammatical distinction. In Diewald & Smirnova (eds.) 2010, 1–14.

  • Diewald, Gabriele & Elena Smirnova (eds.). 2010. Linguistic realization of evidentiality in European languages. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.

  • Faller, Martina T. 2002. Semantics and pragmatics of evidentials in Cuzco Quechua. Stanford, CA: Stanford University doctoral dissertation.

  • Floyd, Rick. 1999. The structure of evidential categories in Wanka Quechua. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics; Arlington, TX: University of Texas at Arlington.

  • Fox, Barbara A. 2001. Evidentiality: Authority, responsibility, and entitlement in English conversation. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 11. 167–192.

  • Frajzyngier, Zymunt. 1985. Truth and the indicative sentence. Studies in Language 9. 243–254.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Garrett, Edward John. 2001. Evidentiality and assertion in Tibetan. Los Angeles: University of California–Los Angeles doctoral dissertation.

  • Gipper, Sonja. 2011. Evidentiality and intersubjectivity in Yurakaré: An interactional account. Nijmegen: Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen doctoral dissertation.

  • Gomez-Imbert, Elsa. 2003. Voir et entendre comme sources de connaissance grammaticalement explicites. In Claude Vandeloise (ed.), Langues et cognition, 117–133. Paris: Hermès Science.

  • Gomez-Imbert, Elsa. 2007. La vue ou l’ouïe: La modalité cognitive des langues tukano orientales. In Zlatka Guentchéva & Jon Landaburu (eds.), L’énonciation médiatisée II – Le traitement épistémologique de l’information: Illustrations amérindiennes et caucasiennes, 65–85. Leuven: Peeters.

  • Hanks, William F. 2014. Evidentiality in social interaction. In Nuckolls & Michael (eds.) 2014, 1–12.

  • Hardman, Martha James. 1986. Data-source marking in Jaqui languages. In Chafe & Nichols (eds.) 1986, 113–136.

  • Hargreaves, David. 1990. Indexical functions and grammatical subsystems in Kathmandu Newari. Chicago Linguistics Society 26. 179–393.

  • Hargreaves, David. 1991. The conceptual structure of intentional action: Data from Kathmandu Newari. Berkeley Linguistic Society 17. 379–389.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Hargreaves, David. 2005. Agency and intentional action in Kathmandu Newar. Himalayan Linguistics 5. 1–48.

  • Haviland, John B. 1987. Fighting word: Evidential particles, affect and argument. Berkeley Linguistics Society 13. 343–354.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Jacobson, William H. 1986. The heterogeneity of evidentials in Makah. In Chafe & Nichols (eds.) 1986, 3–28.

  • König, Ekkehard & Peter Siemund. 2007. Speech act distinctions in grammar. In Timothy Shopen (ed.), Language typology and syntactic description, 2nd edition, Vol. 1: Clause structure, 276–324. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Lazard, Gilbert. 2001. On the grammaticalization of evidentiality. Journal of Pragmatics 33. 359–367.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Littell, Patrick, Lisa Matthewson & Tyler Peterson. 2010. On the semantics of conjectural questions. In Tyler Peterson & Uli Sauerland (eds.), Evidence from evidentials (University of British Columbia Working Papers in Linguistics 28), 89–104. Vancouver: University of British Columbia.

  • Lyons, John. 1977. Semantics, Vol. 2. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Malone, Terrell. 1988. The origin and development of Tuyuca evidentials. International Journal of American Linguistics 54. 119–140.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Matthewson, Lisa, Henry Davis & Hotze Rullmann. 2007. Evidentials as epistemic modals: Evidence from St’át’imcets. Linguistic Variation Yearbook 7. 201–254.

  • McCready, Eric & Norry Ogata. 2007. Evidentiality, modality and probability. Linguistics and Philosophy 30. 147–206.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Michael, Lev D. 2008. Nanti evidential practice: Language, knowledge, and social action in an Amazonian society. Austin, TX: University of Texas doctoral dissertation.

  • Michael, Lev D. 2014. Nanti self-quotation: Implications for the pragmatics of reported speech and evidentiality. In Nuckolls & Michael (eds.) 2014, 155–192.

  • Molochieva, Zarina. 2011. Tense, aspect and mood in Chechen. Leipzig: Universität Leipzig doctoral dissertation.

  • Murray, Sarah E. 2010a. Evidentiality and the structure of speech acts. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University doctoral dissertation.

  • Murray, Sarah E. 2010b. Evidentials and questions in Cheyenne. In Suzi Lima (ed.), Proceedings of SULA 5: Semantics of under-represented languages in the Americas (University of Massachsuetts Occasional Papers 41), 139–155. Amherst, MA: GLSA.

  • Mushin, Ilana. 2014. “Watching for witness”: Evidential strategies and epistemic authority in Garrwa conversation. In Nuckolls & Michael (eds.) 2014, 103–126.

  • Nuckolls, Janis & Lev D. Michael (eds.). 2014. Evidentiality in interaction. Amsterdam: Benjamins.

  • Palmer, Frank R. 1986. Mood and modality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Peterson, Tyler. 2010. Epistemic modality and evidentiality in Gitksan at the semantics-pragmatics interface. Vancouver: University of British Columbia doctoral dissertation.

  • Plungian, Vladimir A. 2010. Types of verbal evidentiality marking: An overview. In Diewald & Smirnova (eds.) 2010, 15–58.

  • Portner, Paul. 2005. The semantics of imperatives within a theory of clause types. In Robert B. Young (ed.), Proceedings of the 14th Semantics and Linguistic Theory Conference held May 14–16, 2004, at Northwestern University, 235–252. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University. http://journals.linguisticsociety.org/proceedings/index.php/SALT/issue/view/95

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Portner, Paul. 2009. Modality. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Ramirez, Henri. 1997. A fala tukano dos Ye’pâ-Masa, Vol. 1: Gramática. Manaus: CEDEM.

  • Sadock, Jerrold M. & Arnold M. Zwicky. 1985. Speech act distinctions in syntax. In Timothy Shopen (ed.), Language typology and syntactic description, Vol. 1: Clause structure, 155–196. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Searle, John R. 1976. A classification of illocutionary acts. Language in Society 5. 1–23.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Seki, Lucy. 2000. Gramática do kamaiurá, língua tupi-guarani do Alto Xingu. Campinas: Universidade Estadual de Campinas.

  • Silva, Wilsonda. 2012. A descriptive grammar of Desano. Salt Lake City: University of Utah doctoral dissertation.

  • Speas, Margaret & Carol L. Tenny. 2003. Configurational properties of point of view roles. In Anna Maria Di Sciullo (ed.), Asymmetry in grammar, Vol. 1: Syntax and semantics, 315–344. Amsterdam: Benjamins.

  • Stenzel, Kristine. 2008. Evidentials and clause modality in Wanano. Studies in Language 32. 405–445.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Stevanovic, Melissa & Anssi Peräkylä. 2012. Deontic authority in interaction: The right to announce, propose, and decide. Research on Language and Social Interaction 45. 297–321.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Valenzuela, Pilar. 2003. Evidentiality in Shipibo-Konibo, with a comparative overview of the category in Panoan. In Aikhenvald & Dixon (eds.) 2003, 33–61.

  • Waldie, Ryan James. 2012. Evidentiality in Nuu-chah-nulth. Vamcouver: University of British Columbia doctoral dissertation.

  • Waldie, Ryan James, Tyler Peterson, Hotze Rullmann & Scott Mackie. 2009. Evidentials as epistemic modals or speech act operators: Testing the tests. Paper presented at the 14th Workshop on Structure and Constituency in the Languages of the Americas, Purdue University, 3–5 April.

  • Willett, Thomas L. 1988. A cross-linguistic survey of the grammaticalization of evidentiality. Studies in Language 12. 51–97.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
Purchase article
Get instant unlimited access to the article.
$42.00
Log in
Already have access? Please log in.


or
Log in with your institution

Journal + Issues

Linguistic Typology publishes research on linguistic diversity and unity. It welcomes articles that report empirical findings about crosslinguistic variation, advance our understanding of the patterns of diversity, or refine typological methodology.

Search