Composition and diversity of bat assemblages at Arabuko-Sokoke Forest and the adjacent farmlands, Kenya

Simon Musila 1 , Nathan Gichuki 2 , Ivan Castro-Arellano 3  and Ana Rainho 4
  • 1 Mammalogy Section, Zoology Department, National Museums of Kenya, P.O. Box 40658-00100, GPO Nairobi, Kenya
  • 2 School of Biological Sciences, University of Nairobi, Chiromo-Nairobi, Kenya
  • 3 Department of Biology, Texas State University, San Marcos, 601 University Drive, San Marcos, TX 7866-4684, USA
  • 4 Departamento de Biologia Animal and Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Change, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa 1749-016, Portugal
Simon Musila
  • Corresponding author
  • Mammalogy Section, Zoology Department, National Museums of Kenya, P.O. Box 40658-00100, GPO Nairobi, Kenya
  • Email
  • Search for other articles:
  • degruyter.comGoogle Scholar
, Nathan Gichuki, Ivan Castro-Arellano
  • Department of Biology, Texas State University, San Marcos, 601 University Drive, San Marcos, TX 7866-4684, USA
  • Search for other articles:
  • degruyter.comGoogle Scholar
and Ana Rainho
  • Departamento de Biologia Animal and Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Change, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa 1749-016, Portugal
  • Search for other articles:
  • degruyter.comGoogle Scholar

Abstract

Recognized as a global biodiversity hotspot, coastal forests in eastern Africa are currently reduced to fragments amidst human modified habitats. Managing for biodiversity depends on our understanding of how many and which species can persist in these modified areas. Aiming at clarifying how habitat structure changes affect bat assemblage composition and richness, we used ground-level mist nets at Arabuko-Sokoke Forest (ASF) and adjacent farmlands. Habitat structure was assessed using the point-centered quarter (PCQ) method at 210 points per habitat. We captured a total of 24 bat species (ASF: 19, farmlands: 23) and 5217 individuals (ASF: 19.1%, farmlands: 82.9%). Bat diversity was higher at ASF (H′, ASF: 1.48 ± 0.2, farm: 1.33 ± 0.1), but bat richness and abundance were higher in farmlands [Chao1, ASF: 19 (19–25), farmlands: 24 (24–32) species (95% confidence interval [CI])]. Understory vegetation and canopy cover were highest at ASF and the lower bat richness and abundance observed may be the result of the under-sampling of many clutter tolerant and high flying species. Future surveys should combine different methods of capture and acoustic surveys to comprehensively sample bats at ASF. Nonetheless, the rich bat assemblages observed in farmlands around ASF should be valued and landowners encouraged to maintain orchards on their farms.

    • Supplementary Material
  • Adams, M.D., B.S. Law and K.O. French. 2009. Vegetation structure influences the vertical stratification of open-and edge-space aerial-foraging bats in harvested forests. For. Ecol. Manag. 258: 2090–2100.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Aggundey, I.R. and D.A. Schlitter. 1984. Annotated checklist of the mammals of Kenya. I. Chiroptera. Ann. Carnegie Mus. 53: 119–161.

  • Aldridge, H.D. and I.L. Rautenbach. 1987. Morphology, echolocation and resource partitioning in insectivorous bats. J. Anim. Ecol. 56: 763–778.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Arlettaz, R. 1996. Feeding behaviour and foraging strategy of free-living mouse-eared bats, Myotis myotis and Myotis blythii. Anim. Behav. 51: 1–11.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • ASFMP. 2002. Arabuko-Sokoke strategic forest management plan 2002–2027. Birdlife International, Cambridge, pp. 146.

  • Atay, E., S. Gargin, A. Esitken, N. Pinar Guzel, A. Atay, M. Altindal, H. Senyurt, and M. Emre. 2017. The effect of weed competition on apple fruit quality. Not. Bot. Horti. Agrobot. 45: 120–125.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Ayensu, E.S. 1974. Plant and bat interactions in West Africa. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 61: 702–727.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Aziz, S.A., K.J. Olival, S. Bumrungsri, G.C. Richards and P.A. Racey. 2016. The conflict between pteropodid bats and fruit growers: species, legislation and mitigation. In: (C.C. Voigt and T. Kingston, eds.) Bats in the anthropocene: conservation of bats in a changing world. Springer International AG, New York. pp. 377–426.

  • Barclays, R.M.R. 1985. Foraging strategies of tropical bat Scotophilus leucogaster. Biotropica 17: 65–70.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Barclay, R.M. 1999. Bats are not birds: a cautionary note on using echolocation calls to identify bats. J. Mammal. 80: 290–296.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Beentje, H.J. 1994. Kenya trees, shrubs and lianas. National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi. pp. 780.

  • Bennun, L.A. and P. Njoroge. 1999. Important bird areas in Kenya. Nature Kenya, Nairobi. pp. 450.

  • Bobrowiec, P.E.D., L.D.S. Rosa, J. Gazarini and T. Haugaasen. 2014. Phyllostomid bat assemblage structure in Amazonian flooded and unflooded forests. Biotropica 46: 312–321.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Brigham R.M., S.D. Grindal, M.C. Firman and J.L. Morissette. 1997. The influence of structural clutter on activity patterns of insectivorous bats. Can. J. Zool. 75: 131–136.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Burgess, N.D. and G.P. Clarke. 2000. The coastal forests of Eastern Africa. IUCN, Cambridge, Gland. pp. 200.

  • Burgess, N.D., G.P. Clarke and W.A. Rodgers. 1998. Coastal forests of eastern Africa: status, endemism patterns and their potential causes. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 64: 337–367.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Castro-Arellano, I., S.J. Presley, L.N. Saldanha, M.R.Willig and J.M. Wunderle. 2007. Effects of low-intensity logging on bat biodiversity in terra firme forest of lowland Amazonia. Biol. Conserv. 138: 269–285.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Chao, A. 1987. Estimating the population size for capture-recapture data with unequal catchability. Biometrics 43: 783–791.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Clarke, F.M., D.V. Pio and P.A. Racey. 2005. A comparison of logging systems and bat diversity in the Neotropics. Conserv. Biol. 19: 1194–1204.

  • Cockle, A., D. Kock, L. Stublefield, K.M. Howell and N.D. Burgess. 1998. Bat assemblages in Tanzanian coastal forests. Mammalia 62: 53–68.

  • Colwell, R.K., A. Chao, N.J. Gotelli, S.-Y. Lin, C.X. Mao, R.L. Chazdon and J.T. Longino. 2012. Models and estimators linking individual-based and sample-based rarefaction, extrapolation, and comparison of assemblages. J. Plant Ecol. 5: 3–21.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Cottam, G. and J.T. Curtis. 1956. The use of distance measures in phytosociological sampling. Ecology 37: 451–460.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Cottam, G., J.T. Curtis and B.W. Hale. 1953. Some sampling characteristics of a population of randomly dispersed individuals. Ecology 34: 741–757.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Desvars, A.L., T. Duval, C. Punelle, M. Pascal and G. Vourc’h. 2009. The flying fox Pteropus seychellensis of Mayotte (Comoros): method of capture and blood sampling. J. Wildl. Dis. 45: 870–873.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Dixon, M.D. 2012. Relationship between land cover and insectivorous bat activity in an urban landscape. Urban Ecosyst. 15: 683–695.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Estrada, A. and Coates-Estrada, R. 2002. Bats in continuous forest, forest fragments and in an agricultural mosaic habitat-island at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. Biol. Conserv. 103: 237–245.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Falk, B., J. Jakobsen, A. Surlykke and C.F. Moss. 2014. Bats coordinate sonar and flight behavior as they forage in open and cluttered environments. J. Exp. Biol. 217: 4356–4364.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Fanshawe, J.H. 1993. The effects of selective logging on bird community of Arabuko-Sokoke Forest, Kenya. PhD Thesis, University of Oxford, Oxford. pp. 210.

  • Fenton, M.B. and I.L. Rautenbach. 1986. A comparison of the roosting and foraging behavior of three species of African insectivorous bats. Can. J. Zool. 64: 2860–2867.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Fenton, M.B., L. Acharya, D. Audet, M.B.C. Hickey, C. Merriman, M.K. Obrist and D.M. Syme. 1992. Phyllostomid bats (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) as indicators of habitat disruption in the Neotropics. Biotropica 24: 440–446.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Fischer, J., A. Zerger, P. Gibbons and B.S. Law. 2010. Tree decline and the future of Australian farmland biodiversity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107: 19597–19602.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Flaquer, C., I. Torre and A. Arrizabalaga. 2007. Comparison of sampling methods for inventory of bat communities. J. Mammal. 88: 526–533.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Fleming, P.J.S. and D. Robinson. 1987. Flying-fox (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) on the north coast of New South Wales: damage to stonefruit crops and control methods. Aust. Mammal. 10: 143–145.

  • Fukuda, D., O.B. Tisen, K. Momose and S. Sakai. 2009. Bat diversity in the vegetation mosaic around a lowland dipterocarp forest of Borneo. Raffles B. Zool. 57: 213–22.

  • Habel, J.H., I.C.C. Casanova, C. Zamora, M. Teucher, B. Hornetz, S. Shauri, R.M. Mulwa and L. Lens. 2017. East African coastal forest under pressure. Biodivers. Conserv. 26: 2751–2758.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Hammer, Ø., D.A.T. Harper and P.D. Ryan. 2001. PAST: Paleontological Statistics Software package for education and data. http://palaeo-electronica.org/2001. Accessed 27th January 2017.

  • Happold, M. and D.C.D. Happold (eds.). 2013. Mammals of Africa. Volume. IV: Hedgehogs, Shrews and Bats. Bloomsbury Publishing, London. pp. 800.

  • Harvey, C.A., A. Medina, D.M. Sanchez, S. Vilchez, B. Hernandez, J.C. Saenz, J.M. Maes, F.C. Asanoves, and F.L. Sinclair. 2006. Patterns of animal diversity in different forms of tree cover in agricultural landscapes. Ecol. Appl. 16: 1986–1999.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Heer, K., M. Helbig-Bonitz, R.G. Fernandes, M.A.R. Mello and K.V. Kalko. 2015. Effects of land use on bat diversity in a complex plantation-forest landscape in northeastern. Brazil. J. Mammal. 96: 720–731.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Heltshe, J.F. and N.E. Forrester. 1983. Estimating species richness using the jackknife procedure. Biometrics 39: 1–11.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Humes, M.L., J.P. Hayes and M.W. Collopy. 1999. Bat activity in thinned, unthinned, and old-growth forests in western Oregon. J. Wildl. Manag. 63: 553–561.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • IUCN. 2017. Mammals. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. http://www.iucnredlist.org/initiatives/mammals. Accessed 27 June 2017.

  • Jennings, S.B., N.D. Brown and D. Sheil. 1999. Assessing forest canopies and understorey illumination: canopy closure, canopy cover and other measures. Forestry 72: 59–73.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Johnson, J.B., J.E. Gates and W.M. Ford. 2008. Distribution and activity of bats at local and landscape scales within a rural-urban gradient. Urban Ecosyst. 11: 227–242.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Korhonen, L., K.T. Korhonen, M. Rautiainen and P. Stenberg. 2006. Estimation of forest canopy cover: a comparison of field measurement techniques. Silva Fenn. 40: 577–588.

  • Korine, C., I. Izhaki and D. Makiin. 1994. Population structure and emergence order in the fruit-bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus: Mammalia, Chiroptera). J. Zool. (Lond.). 232: 163–174.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Kunz, T.H. and A. Kurta. 1988. Capture methods and holding devices. In: (T.H. Kunz, and S. Parsons, eds.) Ecological and behavioral methods for the study of bats. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. pp. 1–29.

  • Kunz, T.H., C.R. Tidemann and G.C. Richards. 1996. Small volant mammals. In: (D.E. Wilson, F.R. Cole, J.D. Nichols, R. Rudran and M.S. Foster, eds.) Measuring and monitoring biological diversity: standard methods for Mammals. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. pp. 24–89.

  • Kunz, T.H., R. Hodgkison and C.D. Weise. 2009. Methods for capturing and handling bats. In: (T.H. Kunz and S. Parsons, eds.) Ecological and behavioral methods for the study of bats. 2nd edition. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. pp. 5–35.

  • Lang, A.B., C.D. Weise, E.K.V. Kalko and H. Roemer. 2004. The bias of bat netting. Bat Res. News 45: 235–236.

  • Larsen, R.J., K.A. Boegler, H.H. Genoways, W.P. Masefield, R.A. Kirsch and S.C. Pedersen. 2007. Mist netting bias, species accumulation curves, and the rediscovery of two bats on Montserrat (Lesser Antilles). Acta Chiropterol. 9: 423–435.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Laurance, W.F. 1999. Reflections on the tropical deforestation crisis. Biol. Conserv. 91: 109–117.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Law, B. and M. Chidel. 2002. Tracks and riparian zones facilitate the use of Australian regrowth forest by insectivorous bats. J. Appl. Ecol. 39: 605–617.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Lentini, P.E., P. Gibbons, J. Fischer, B. Law, J. Hanspach and T.G. Martin. 2012. Bats in a farming landscape benefit from linear remnants and unimproved pastures. PLoS One 7: e48201.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • López-Baucells, A., R. Rocha, P.W. Webala, A. Nair, R. Uusitalo, T. Sironen and K.M. Forbes. 2016. Rapid assessment of bat diversity in the Taita Hills Afromontane cloud forests, southeastern Kenya. J. Bat Res. Conserv. 9: 1–10.

  • López-Baucells, A., R. Rocha, Z. Andriatafika, T. Tojosoa, J. Kemp, K.M. Forbes and M. Cabeza. 2017. Roost selection by synanthropic bats in rural Madagascar: what makes non-traditional structures so tempting? Hystrix, It. J. Mammal. 28: 28–35.

  • Lumsden, L.F. and A.F. Bennett, 2005. Scattered trees in rural landscapes: foraging habitat for insectivorous bats in south-eastern Australia. Biol. Conserv. 122: 205–222.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Luskin, M.S. 2010. Flying foxes prefer to forage in farmland in a tropical dry forest landscape mosaic in Fiji. Biotropica 42: 246–250.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • MacSwiney, M.C., P. Vilchis, F.M. Clarke and P.A. Racey. 2007. The importance of cenotes in conserving bat assemblages in the Yucatán, Mexico. Biol. Conserv. 136: 499–509.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • MacSwiney, G., M. Cristina, F.M. Clarke and P.A. Racey. 2008. What you see is not what you get: the role of ultrasonic detectors in increasing inventory completeness in Neotropical bat assemblages. J. Appl. Ecol. 45: 1364–1371.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Marciente, R., P.E.D. Bobrowiec and W.E. Magnusson. 2015. Ground-vegetation clutter affects Phyllostomid bat assemblage structure in lowland Amazonian forest. PLoS One 10: e0129560.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Marques, J.T., M.J.R. Pereira, T.A. Marques, C.D. Santos, J. Santana, P. Beja, and J.M. Palmeirim. 2013. Optimizing sampling design to deal with mist-net avoidance in Amazonian birds and bats. PLoS One 8: e74505.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Marques, J.T., M.J. Ramos-Pereira and J.M. Palmeirim. 2016. Patterns in the use of rainforest vertical space by Neotropical aerial insectivorous bats: all the action is up in the canopy. Ecography 39: 476–48.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Medellín, R.A. 1993. Estructura y diversidad de una comunidad de murciélagos en el trópico húmedo mexicano. In: (R.A. Medellín, G. Ceballos, eds.) Avances en el estudio de los Mamíferos de México. Mexicana de Mastozoología, Mexico. pp. 333–354.

  • Mendenhall, C.D., D.S. Karp, C.F.J. Meyer, E.A. Hadly and G.C. Daily. 2014. Predicting biodiversity change and averting collapse in agricultural landscapes. Nature 509: 213–217.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Menzel, J.M., M.A. Menzel, J.C. Kilgo, W.M. Ford, J.W. Edwards and G.F. McCracken. 2005. Effect of habitat and foraging height on bat activity in the coastal plain of South Carolina. J. Wildl. Manag. 69: 235–245.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Meyer, C.F.J., L.M.S. Aguiar, L.F. Aguirre, J. Baumgarten, F.M. Clarke, F. Cosson, S. Estrada-Villegas, J. Fahr, N. Furey, M. Henry, R. Hodgkison, R.K.B. Jenkins, K.G. Jung and T. Kingston. 2011. Accounting for detectability improves estimates of species richness in tropical bat surveys. J. Appl. Ecol. 48: 777–787.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Miller, J.R., S.A. Snyder, A.M. Skibbe and R.G. Haight. 2009. Prioritizing conservation targets in a rapidly urbanizing landscape. Landsc. Urban Plan. 93: 123–131.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Mittermeier, R.A., N. Myers, J.B. Thompsen, G.A.B. da Fonseca and S. Olivieri. 1998. Global biodiversity hotspots and major tropical wilderness areas. Conserv. Biol. 12: 516–520.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Mitchell, K. 2007. Quantitative analysis by the point-centered quarter method. Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva and New York. pp. 230.

  • Monadjem, A., P.J. Taylor, W. Cotterill and M.C. Schoeman. 2010. Bats of southern and central Africa: a biogeographic and taxonomic synthesis. Wits University Press, Johannesburg. pp. 596.

  • Monroy-Vilchis, O., Y. Gómez-Ortiz, M. Janczur and V. Urios. 2009. Food niche of Puma concolor in Central Mexico. Wildl. Biol. 15: 97–105.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Morisita, M. 1959. Measuring of interspecific association and similarity between communities. Mem. Fac. Sci. Kyushu Univ. 3: 65–80.

  • Muchiri, M.N., C.K. Kiriinya and D.M. Mbithi. 2001. Forestry inventory report for the indigenous forest in Arabuko-Sokoke Forest Reserve. Kenya Forestry Research Institute, Nairobi. pp. 145.

  • Müller, J., M. Mehr, C. Bässler, M.B. Fenton, T. Hothorn, H. Pretzsch, H.J. Klemmt and R. Brandl. 2012. Aggregative response in bats: prey abundance versus habitat. Oecologia 169: 673–684.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Muriithi, S. and W. Kenyon. 2002. Conservation of biodiversity in the Arabuko Sokoke forest, Kenya. Biodivers. Conserv. 11: 1437–1450.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Murray, K.L., E.R.B. Ritzke, B.M.H. Adley and L.W. Robbins. 1999. Surveying bat communities: a comparison between mist nets and AnaBat II bat detector system. Acta Chiropterol 1: 105–112.

  • Musila, S., R. Syingi, G. Nathan and I. Castro-Arellano. 2018a. Bat activity in the interior of Arabuko-Sokoke Forest and adjacent farmlands in Kenya. J. Bat Res. Conserv. 11. doi: https://doi.org/10.14709/.BarbJ.11.1.2018.05.

  • Musila, S., A. Monadjem, P.W. Webala, B.D. Patterson, H. Hutterer, Y.A. De Jong, T.M. Butynski, G. Mwangi, Z.Z. Chen and X.-L. Jiang. 2018b. An annotated checklist of mammals of Kenya. Zool. Res. 40: 1–50.

  • Musila, S., P. Prokop and G. Gichuki. 2018c. Knowledge and perceptions of, and attitudes to, bats by people living around Arabuko-Sokoke Forest, Malindi-Kenya. Anthrozoös 31: 247–262.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Myers, N., C.G. Mittermeier, G.A.B. Da Fonseca and J. Kent. 2000. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403: 853–858.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Neuweiler, G. 1984. Foraging, echolocation and audition in bats. Naturwissenchaften 71: 446–455.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Newmark, W.D. and P.B. McNeally. 2018. Impact of habitat fragmentation on the spatial structure of the Eastern Arc forests in East Africa: implications for biodiversity conservation. Biodiv. Conserv. 27: 1387–1402.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Noer, C.L., T. Dabelsteen, K. Bohmann, and A. Monadjem. 2012. Molossid bats in an African agro-ecosystem select sugarcane fields as foraging habitat. Afr. Zool. 47: 1–11.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Nudds, T.D. 1977. Quantifying the vegetation structure of wildlife cover. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 5: 113–117.

  • O’Farrell, M.J., and W.L. Gannon. 1999. A comparison of acoustics versus capture techniques for the inventory of bats. J. Mammal. 80: 24–30.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Oyugi, J.O., J.S. Brown and C.J. Whelan. 2007. Effects of human disturbance on composition and structure of Brachystegia woodland in Arabuko-Sokoke Forest, Kenya. Afr. J. Ecol. 46: 374–383.

  • Patterson, B.D. and P. Webala. 2012. Keys to the bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of East Africa. Fieldiana 6: 1–60.

  • Peters, S.L., J.R. Malcolm and B.L. Zimmerman. 2006. Effects of selective logging on bat communities in the southeastern Amazon. Conserv. Biol. 20: 1410–1421.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Presley S.J., M.R. Willig, J.M. Wunderle and L.N. Saldanha. 2008. Effects of reduced impact logging and forest physiognomy on phyllostomid bat populations of lowland Amazon forest. J. Appl. Ecol. 45: 14–25.

  • Ragusa-Netto, J. and A.A. Santos. 2014. Seed rain generated by bats under Cerrado’s pasture remnant trees in a Neotropical savanna. Braz. J. Biol. 74: 429–437.

  • Rainho, A., A.M. Augusto and J.M. Palmeirim. 2010. Influence of vegetation clutter on the capacity of ground foraging bats to capture prey. J. Appl. Ecol. 47: 850–858.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Ramos-Pereira, M.J.R., J.T. Marques and J.M. Palmeirim. 2010. Vertical stratification of bat assemblages in flooded and unflooded Amazonian forests. Curr. Zool. 56: 469–478.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Ratcliffe, J.M., H. Raghuram, G. Marimuthu, J.H. Fullard and M.B. Fenton. 2005. Hunting in unfamiliar space: Echolocation in the Indian false vampire bat, Megaderma lyra, when gleaning prey. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 58: 157–164.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Robel, R.J., J.N. Briggs, A.D. Dayton and L.C. Hulbert. 1970. Relationship between visual obstruction measurements and weight of grassland. J. Range Manag. 23: 295–297.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Sampaio, E.M., E.K.V. Kalko, E. Bernard, B. Rodriguez-Herrera and C.O. Handley Jr. 2003. A biodiversity assessment of bats (Chiroptera) in a tropical lowland rainforest of Central Amazonia, including methodological and conservation considerations. Stud. Neotrop. Fauna E 38: 17–31.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Shannon, C.E. and W. Weaver. 1963. The mathematical theory of communication. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. pp. 238.

  • Sikes, R.S. and W.L. Gannon. 2011. Guidelines of the American Society of Mammalogists for the use of wild mammals in research. J. Mammal. 92: 235–253.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Sirami, C., D.S. Jacobs and G.S. Cumming. 2013. Artificial wetlands and surrounding habitats provide important foraging habitat for bats in agricultural landscapes in the Western Cape, South Africa. Biol. Conserv. 164: 30–38.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Simmons, J.A. and R.A. Stein. 1980. Acoustic imaging in bat sonar: echolocation signals and the evolution of echolocation. J. Comp. Physiol. 135: 61–84.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Simmons, N.B. and R.S. Voss. 1998. The mammals of Paracou, French Guiana, a Neotropical lowland rainforest fauna Part 1, Bats. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 273: 1–219.

  • Smith, C.Y., I.G. Warkentin and M.T. Moroni. 2008. Snag availability for cavity nesters across a chronosequence of post-harvest landscapes in western Newfoundland. Forest Ecol. Manag. 256: 641–647.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Taylor, R.J. and N.M. Savva. 1988. Use of roost trees by four species of bats in state forest in south-eastern Tasmania. Austr. Wild. Res. 15: 637–645.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Taylor, P.J., D. Mkhari, T. Mukwevho, A. Monadjem, M.C. Schoeman, C. Schoeman and J.N. Steyn. 2012. Bats as potential biocontrol agents in an agricultural landscape Levubu Valley, Limpopo Province: diet, activity and species composition of bats in macadamia ochards in neighbouring natural habitats. SAAGA 35: 51–61.

  • Tóthmérész, B. 1995. Comparison of different methods for diversity ordering. J. Veg. Sci. 6: 283–290.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Treitler, J.T., O. Heim, M. Tschapka and K. Jung. 2016. The effect of local land use and loss of forests on bats and nocturnal insects. Trends Ecol. Evol. 6: 4289–4297.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • UNEP-WCMC. 2016. The state of biodiversity in Africa: a mid-term review of progress towards the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge.

  • Voigt, C.C., K.L. Phelps, L.F. Aguirre, M.C. Schoeman, J. Vanitharani and A. Zubaid. 2016. Bats and buildings: the conservation of synanthropic bats. In: (C.C. Voigt and T. Kingston, eds.) Bats in the anthropocene: conservation of bats in a changing world. Springer International AG, New York. pp. 427–462.

  • Webala, P.W., N.O. Oguge and A. Bekele. 2004. Bat species diversity and distribution in three vegetation communities of Meru National Park Kenya. Afr. J. Ecol. 42: 171–179.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Webala, P.W., G. Muriuki, F. Lala and A. Bett. 2006. The small mammal community of Mukogodo forest, Kenya. Afr. J. Ecol. 44: 363–370.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Webala, P.W., L. Carugati, L. Canova and M. Fasola. 2009. Bat assemblages from Eastern Lake Turkana, Kenya. Rev. Écol. 64: 85–91.

  • Webala, P.W., S. Musila and R. Makau. 2014. Roost occupancy, roost site selection and diet of straw-coloured fruit bats (Pteropodidae: Eidolon helvum) in western Kenya: the need for continued public education. Acta Chiropterol. 16: 85–94.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Wechuli, D.B., P.W. Webala, B.D. Patterson and R.S. Ochieng. 2016. Bat species diversity and distribution in a disturbed regime at the Lake Bogoria National Reserve, Kenya. Afr. J. Ecol. 55: 465–476.

  • Williams-Guillén, K., E. Olimpi, B. Maas, P.J. Taylor and R. Arlettaz. 2016. Bats in the anthropogenic matrix: challenges and opportunities for the conservation of Chiroptera and their ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes. In: (C.C. Voigt and T. Kingston, eds.) Bats in the anthropocene: conservation of bats in a changing world. Springer International AG, New York. pp. 151–185.

  • Willig, M.R., S.J. Presley, C.P. Bloch, C.L. Hice, S.P. Yanoviak, M.M. Díaz, L.A. Chauca, V. Pacheco and S.C. Weaver. 2007. Phyllostomid bats of lowland Amazonian forest: effects of anthropogenic alteration of habitat. Biotropica 39: 737–746.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
Purchase article
Get instant unlimited access to the article.
$42.00
Log in
Already have access? Please log in.


or
Log in with your institution

Journal + Issues

Mammalia is a peer-reviewed journal devoted to the inventory, analysis and interpretation of Mammalian diversity. It publishes original results on all aspects of systematics (comparative, functional and evolutionary morphology; morphometrics; phylogeny; biogeography; taxonomy and nomenclature), biology, ecology and conservation of mammals.

Search